3. Health Care Policy, Nursing Research And Nursing Theory (Due 20 Hours) APA Format 1) Minimum 4 full pages (No word count per page)- Follow the 3 x

3. Health Care Policy, Nursing Research And Nursing Theory (Due 20 Hours) APA Format

1) Minimum 4 full pages (No word count per page)- Follow the 3 x

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3. Health Care Policy, Nursing Research And Nursing Theory (Due 20 Hours) APA Format

1) Minimum 4 full pages (No word count per page)- Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs per page

Part 1: minimum 1 page

Part 2: minimum 1 page

Part 3: minimum 1 page

Part 4: minimum 1 page

Submit 1 document per part

2)¨******APA norms

All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraph

Bulleted responses are not accepted

Don’t write in the first person

Don’t copy and paste the questions.

Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph

Submit 1 document per part

3)****************************** It will be verified by Turnitin (Identify the percentage of exact match of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)

********************************It will be verified by SafeAssign (Identify the percentage of similarity of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)

4) Minimum 3 references (APA format) per part not older than 5 years (Journals, books) (No websites)

All references must be consistent with the topic-purpose-focus of the parts. Different references are not allowed.

5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question. Start your answer on the same line, not the next

Example:

Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX

Q 2. Health is XXXX

6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering:

Example:

Part 1.doc

Part 2.doc

__________________________________________________________________________________

Part 1: Health Care Policy

1. How might nurses and nursing organizations improve policies to encourage the judicious use of antibiotics in humans?

2. Identify the correlation between global disease surveillance and domestic disease surveillance, and :

a. The significant role the family nurse practitioner plays.

Part 2: Nursing Research

Write a small reflection (Check File 1)

1. What you have learned from this class

2. Where the objectives you had for the class met

3. How do you anticipate the use of research.

Part 3: Nursing Research

Research Topic:

Quality of Care and Application of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Measures

Research Questions:

How is the nursing intervention in patients with pressure ulcers associated with the risk factors of hospitalized patients?

Are patients at risk of developing pressure ulcers assessed?

Are there enough supplies to provide nursing care according to the needs of the patient?

What are the risk factors for pressure ulcers?

Recommendations

So, the main recommendation of this study is to educate health institutions about the resources that staff require to address the first signs of pressure ulcers, since having adequate nursing staff but without resources invalidates any preventive action that nurses can run to reduce the occurrence of severe pressure ulcers.

Limitations:

Once the results of this study have been obtained, it is essential to consider that the main limitation of this study was not addressing the responsibility of health institutions to prevent the appearance of pressure ulcers or to intervene after the first signs. Unfortunately, the responsibility of health institutions as providers of education and physical resources to guarantee patients’ health has been forgotten since, generally, they fall on the practices of health professionals.

Please write a reflection regarding your recently completed research.

1. Were your intended outcomes accomplished in your research? (yes)

2. What would you do differently if you could have started over? ( check limitations)

a. Did you wish to change your methodology (No)?

b. Do you need to address your study limitations(yes)?

Part 4: Nursing Theory

Select a Nursing Theory that closely aligns with your current practice: The Community Nursing Practice Model

1. Reflect why you chose your theory

2. How it applies to your nursing practice. Patient Safety and Quality Research
NGR 5110 – Nursing Research
Chapter 26
Florida National University
Dr. Barry Eugene Graham

Patient Safety and Quality Research

What comes to mind when we think about patient safety and quality research?
As an educator there are two concepts that I have always tried to impress upon my nursing students in the clinical setting.
Safety and infection control.
The world of research plays an active role in the safe delivery of care and to ensure the continuous development of quality measures to enhance client outcomes.
According to research there are somewhere between 44,000 and 98,000 people die in U.S. hospitals each year as a result of preventable errors.
This exceeded the number of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a given year.
“It is not acceptable,”

Research Study Versus Quality Improvement Project

Although closely related, there are some important differences between a quality improvement project and a research study.
A research study, on the other hand, is a systematic investigation of phenomena that is designed to contribute new knowledge.
Many emphasize that research findings are also meant to be generalizable, but that is still a subject of some discussion in qualitative research.
A research study protocol always needs to be reviewed by an institutional review board (IRB), even if it is certain to be found to be an exempt study.
The traditional distinction between quality improvement and research was whether you intended to publish the results.

Some Examples Of Patient Safety Research

Patient safety and quality improvement studies may be small, simple, and local or they may become large, complex, system-wide, or even nationwide studies.

Quality Improvement Research

Purpose Solve a problem Develop new knowledge

Context Local Institution/Facility Generalizable to other locales

Time Frame Immediate Long range

Protection of Human Subjects HIPPA rules and safe care policies IRB review including HIPAA rules and safety concerns

Scientific Rigor Adhere to the principles of scientific inquiry Rigorous improvement to current practice

Basis of Practice Current standards Potential improvement to current practice

Sample All patients who may be affected by the problem Specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, random selection if possible

TABLE 26-1 Differences Between Research Studies and Quality Improvement Studies Quality Improvement Research
4

Design Challenges In Patient Safety Research
Every type of research study has its challenges, and patient safety research certainly has its share. Many are related to the types of questions raised, the data collection approaches, and data analyses needed to answer these questions. The following are descriptions of a few of the challenges.
Defining the Event of Concern
Identifying the Event in Existing Records
Noting the Sequence of Events and the Date the Event of Interest Occurred
Comparing Populations Across Facilities
High Rates of Baseline Adherence
Multifaceted and Multilevel Interventions
Encompassing the Contextual Complexity of System Change
Complex Data Analyses

Ethical Research Considerations
The federal government’s Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], n.d.) has issued guidelines that address these ethical concerns. OHRP guidelines state that an IRB should follow these guidelines when considering a request for waiver of consent:
The research involves no more than minimal risk to the subjects of the research.
Only the minimum information necessary to conduct the research will be collected.
Confidentiality must be maintained; particular attention needs to be paid to collection of any identifying information.
Situations that may qualify for waiver of consent include:
The research cannot be reasonably carried out unless consent is waived. (Imagine contacting 15,000 new mothers or 100,000 individuals prescribed a newly released antihypertensive drug.)
Scientific rigor of the research would be threatened by consent procedures because they would either bias subject selection, affect subject behavior, or increase the risks to protection of privacy or to the well-being of the subjects by contacting them. (Imagine obtaining consent from undocumented [illegal] immigrants or young runners for drug dealers or people screened for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]).

Ethical Research Considerations (Continued)

Summary

The number of patients shown to have been harmed as a result of preventable errors, especially those who lost their lives due to these errors, is unacceptable and in need of remedy.
Ensuring patient safety and well-being by improving the quality of the care provided is a fundamental goal of patient safety and quality improvement studies. Quality improvement studies typically focus on testing solutions to a local (facility or unit-specific) problem, whereas research studies are intended to produce generalizable knowledge.
Several issues related to the design, conduct, and analysis of patient safety and quality studies were discussed including having a clear definition of the problem or adverse event, consideration of the context within which it occurs, the complexity of multifaceted interventions and large healthcare organizations, and ethical concerns about protecting patient confidentiality, as well as some special considerations in publishing the results of these studies.

Reference – Chapter 26
Tappen, R. M. (2015). Advanced Nursing Research. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781284132496/

Developing a Program of Research
NGR 5110 – Nursing Research
Chapter 27
Florida National University
Dr. Barry Eugene Graham

Developing a Program of Research

What do we think about when it comes to developing a program of research?
There are several reasons why a beginning researcher is encouraged to build a program of research
The opposite approach to deliberately building a program of research would be to conduct a number of discrete, unrelated studies on various topics.
Having a clear path to a long-term goal in mind, called a research trajectory, helps to guide your choices and maintain your focus as you build your research career.

The Value Of Building A Program Of Research

There are several reasons why a beginning researcher is encouraged to build a program of research:
It enables you to develop expertise in your chosen area of research, developing much greater depth and breadth of knowledge and experience than would be possible if you worked on a great number of different topics.
It increases the likelihood that you will be able to make a substantial contribution to our knowledge base and to nursing practice.
It is also likely that your studies will be of a higher quality because you will have greater expertise if you are able to concentrate on one subject area that you know very well.
The depth and breadth of knowledge and experience also help you see new patterns and connections, which are an important part of the process of discovery, and to combine data from several different studies for a secondary analysis.

Launching A Program Of Research

Choose an area of great interest to you. It is best to be passionate about your subject because you will be devoting a lot of time and energy to it if you hope to be successful.
The subject you select should also be one that is important to the profession and has wide application to nursing practice. In other words, it should have the potential to make significant impact on care in the future. Examples would be prevention of nosocomial infections, reducing health disparities, and managing childhood asthma more effectively.

Launching A Program Of Research

Figure 27-1 Mapping your personal research trajectory.
14

A Fictional Example
Jolene Hayes, a fictional nurse whose personal struggles with overweight as a child inspired her research program and her decision to pursue a career in nursing research.
Jolene Hayes had been overweight as a child.
Jolene loved computer games, preferring to stay indoors at the computer after school rather than joining neighborhood friends bicycling and skateboarding.
Jolene continued to struggle with her weight in college.
Jolene began to select childhood nutrition and fitness as the topics for assigned clinical papers whenever possible.
She returned to school, became a nurse practitioner and later obtained a doctoral degree.
Now Dr. Hayes has published several articles on her subject of expertise.

A Fictional Example (Continued)

Based on her dissertation work, Jolene applied for a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Institute of Nursing Research.

She took a cut in her pay as a pediatric nurse practitioner to devote her time to developing her research program.

Upon completing her postdoctoral program, Dr. Hayes accepted a dual appointment in a university medical center, dividing her time among teaching advanced pediatric nursing, pursuing her research, and seeing overweight children in the pediatric outpatient clinic.

Dr. Hayes was fortunate to be employed in a dynamic academic health center that encouraged interdisciplinary research.

Dr. Jolene Hayes became a nationally known expert on morbid obesity in the pediatric population.

For Jolene, now Dr. Hayes, what was once a painful experience had become a rewarding career in nursing research.

Summary

Class, I sincerely hope that everyone here follows their passion and pursue their research interest and take their research to the next level.
Do not allow your research ideas or initiatives to fall to the side of the road and never allow your work to get published.
Follow your dreams and go as far as your ambitions will take you.

References – Chapter 27
Tappen, R. M. (2015). Advanced Nursing Research. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781284132496/

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