As Below 1. Define the following terms: Descriptive statistics Scales of measurement Measures of central tendency Frequency distributions Correl

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As Below 1. Define the following terms:

Descriptive statistics
Scales of measurement
Measures of central tendency
Frequency distributions
Correlation coefficient
Effect size
Multiple regression

2. How are group means, percentages, and correlations used to describe research results?
3. How can graphs be used to describe and summarize data?
4. A researcher is studying reading rates in milliseconds per syllable. What scale of measurement—nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio—is time in milliseconds? Explain your response.
5. Under what circumstances is the median or mode a better measure of central tendency than the mean? Explain your response.
6. True or false: The standard deviation and the range are sensitive to outliers. Explain your response.
7. True or false: The standard deviation can never be 0. Explain your response. 1353337 – McGraw-Hill Higher Education (US) ©

Page 268

Page 269

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Contrast the three ways of describing results: comparing group percentages,
correlating scores, and comparing group means.
Describe a frequency distribution, including the various ways to display a frequency
distribution.
Describe the measures of central tendency and variability.
Define a correlation coefficient.
Define effect size.
Describe the use of a regression equation and a multiple correlation to predict
behavior.
Discuss how a partial correlation addresses the third-variable problem.
Summarize the purpose of structural equation models.

1353337 – McGraw-Hill Higher Education (US) ©

STATISTICS HELP US UNDERSTAND DATA COLLECTED IN
RESEARCH INVESTIGATIONS IN TWO WAYS: FIRST, STATISTICS
ARE USED TO DESCRIBE THE DATA. Second, statistics are used to make
inferences and draw conclusions, on the basis of sample data, about a population. We
examine descriptive statistics and correlation in this chapter; inferential statistics are
discussed in Chapter 13. This chapter will focus on the underlying logic and general
procedures for making statistical decisions. Specific calculations for a variety of statistics
are provided in Appendix C.

SCALES OF MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW
Before looking at any statistics, we need to review the concept of scales of measurement.
Whenever a variable is studied, the researcher must create an operational definition of the
variable and devise two or more levels of the variable. Recall from Chapter 5 that the
levels of the variable can be described using one of four scales of measurement: nominal,
ordinal, interval, and ratio. The scale used determines the types of statistics that are
appropriate when the results of a study are analyzed. Also recall that the meaning of a
particular score on a variable depends on which type of scale was used when the variable
was measured or manipulated.

The levels of nominal scale variables have no numerical, quantitative properties. The
levels are simply different categories or groups. Most independent variables in
experiments are nominal, for example, as in an experiment that compares behavioral and
cognitive therapies for depression.

file://view/books/9780077768713/epub/OEBPS/20_chapter13.html#chap13

file://view/books/9780077768713/epub/OEBPS/24_appendix-C.html#appC

file://view/books/9780077768713/epub/OEBPS/12_chapter05.html#chap5

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