Critical Questions Of Emancipatory Knowing The creative processes for developing emancipatory knowledge grow from the critical questions of emancipatory kn

Critical Questions Of Emancipatory Knowing The creative processes for developing emancipatory knowledge grow from the critical questions of emancipatory kn

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The creative processes for developing emancipatory knowledge grow from the critical questions of emancipatory knowing shown in Fig. 3.1. These critical questions are: What is wrong with this picture? Who benefits? What are the barriers to freedom? What changes are needed? These questions can be asked in a variety of contexts and situations, including the context of care. The questions on the model are suggestions, but any question that focuses on bringing social injustices into awareness is also a critical question. 

When you ask the critical questions associated with emancipatory knowing, an underlying assumption is that people are not radically free to choose from among an unlimited variety of options, and that things need to change to make new options accessible to everyone. To assume that people are radically free places the responsibility for developing one’s full potential totally with the individual. Critical questioning assumes that freedoms are situated, which means that the possibilities for freedom and the development of individual potential are determined by a person’s situation. In other words, from a critical perspective, a person’s situation is assumed to be constructed by social practices that create disadvantage for some and privilege for others. 

From an emancipatory perspective, any conditions that limit people from developing their full human potential can be made visible, what is imagined can become real, and humans have the innate capacity to bring about changes to improve the human condition. Asking a critical question such as “What is wrong with this picture?” requires a lens that sees beyond the obvious and beyond one’s own personal experience. This makes it possible to discern problems that may exist with what people assume to be true.

Recognizing injustices and inequities can create major personal and professional dilemmas. Most people are socialized to accept an unfair status quo as the way things are (hegemony) and not to question the uncomfortable fact that some people are privileged and others are disadvantaged. To bring this kind of awareness to the surface and to act on it requires great courage, persistence, and the support of colleagues and allies who remain committed to action. Taking action often disturbs the status quo in ways that are not only uncomfortable but also prompt harsh and swift action to keep prevailing hegemonies in place. Nonetheless, critically questioning the status quo is an initial and critical feature of emancipatory knowing that sets the stage for praxis.

Why Is This Important?

When nurses question why something seems unfair, they are operating under the assumption that all persons deserve the freedom and opportunity to develop their full potential. Such questions assume that developing and exercising one’s potential is not solely a matter of individual will or desire, but that culture and society create conditions and structures within which people can thrive or fail to thrive.

r all Discussion Boards: 

1. Complete required reading before creating your post.

2. Initial post: Each student creates a new thread in the forum as the  initial posting of their own that is 250-300 words (use your Word Count tool) plus TWO scholarly references to support the posting. One of the references is the appropriate text and the other a scholarly, peer reviewed journal article. If the professor responds and asks you for clarification or a question, you must respond to the professor. 

3. Responding to posts: Each student must respond once during the week. The response must be thoughtful and reference-based. The response must be 100-125 words. Please put thought into your statements. General posts will not count; you must provide additional knowledge and add to the discussion to receive credit for the posting. ONE reference is required for response. It may be one of the original references the poster used.

4. Students who do not post by the due dates will be considered absent and will earn a grade of 0% for the Discussion post. Discussion board posts that are incomplete or do not meet the requirements may earn a partial grade or zero.

5. References must be in APA Style (7th edition) and included at the end of both postings hanging indentation not required.

6. The reference is not included in the word count. HINT: To avoid losing work and check your word count, write your post in Word or Google doc, do the word count, and when finished copy & paste into the Discussion Board.

Rubric for Discussion Board #1

Criteria

5 Points total

Exceeds expectations

90-100%

Meets Expectations

83-89%

Does Not Meet

0-82% 

Initial Post (3.5 pt)

Describes the situation with detail, addresses 4 critical questions,  and reflects on how emancipatory knowing might impact response now. Two citations.

Describes the situation with some detail, addresses 3 critical questions,and  reflects on how emancipatory knowing might impact response now not complete. One citation.

Lacks detail or less than 3 questions discussed, or no citations

Peer Response (1.5 pt)

Provides specific feedback or empathetic response to Peer. Supports position with at least one citation.

Response lacking in specifics or content. No citation.

Not completed

APA Formatting – .25 deduction for each error type

Critical Questions of Emancipatory Knowing


Watch the Patterns of Knowing Animation and read Ch 3 to complete this discussion board

This excerpt is part of the prompt for the discussion (Chinn & Kramer, 2018, p 81)

The creative processes for developing emancipatory knowledge grow from the critical questions of emancipatory knowing shown in Fig. 3.1. These critical questions are: What is wrong with this picture? Who benefits? What are the barriers to freedom? What changes are needed? These questions can be asked in a variety of contexts and situations, including the context of care. The questions on the model are suggestions, but any question that focuses on bringing social injustices into awareness is also a critical question. 

When you ask the critical questions associated with emancipatory knowing, an underlying assumption is that people are not radically free to choose from among an unlimited variety of options, and that things need to change to make new options accessible to everyone. To assume that people are radically free places the responsibility for developing one’s full potential totally with the individual. Critical questioning assumes that freedoms are situated, which means that the possibilities for freedom and the development of individual potential are determined by a person’s situation. In other words, from a critical perspective, a person’s situation is assumed to be constructed by social practices that create disadvantage for some and privilege for others. 

From an emancipatory perspective, any conditions that limit people from developing their full human potential can be made visible, what is imagined can become real, and humans have the innate capacity to bring about changes to improve the human condition. Asking a critical question such as “What is wrong with this picture?” requires a lens that sees beyond the obvious and beyond one’s own personal experience. This makes it possible to discern problems that may exist with what people assume to be true.

Recognizing injustices and inequities can create major personal and professional dilemmas. Most people are socialized to accept an unfair status quo as the way things are (hegemony) and not to question the uncomfortable fact that some people are privileged and others are disadvantaged. To bring this kind of awareness to the surface and to act on it requires great courage, persistence, and the support of colleagues and allies who remain committed to action. Taking action often disturbs the status quo in ways that are not only uncomfortable but also prompt harsh and swift action to keep prevailing hegemonies in place. Nonetheless, critically questioning the status quo is an initial and critical feature of emancipatory knowing that sets the stage for praxis.

Why Is This Important?

When nurses question why something seems unfair, they are operating under the assumption that all persons deserve the freedom and opportunity to develop their full potential. Such questions assume that developing and exercising one’s potential is not solely a matter of individual will or desire, but that culture and society create conditions and structures within which people can thrive or fail to thrive.

Think About It…

Consider a nursing situation that you observed (or have been a part of) and believed to be unfair or wrong.

This must be a different situation than your Patterns of Knowing Paper.


Then ask yourself the four critical questions of emancipatory knowing:

 ‘What is wrong with this picture (your perception/beliefs)?’

 ‘Who benefits (from keeping things as they are/the status quo)?’ 

‘What are the barriers to freedom (preventing the situation from changing)?’ 

‘What changes are needed (what do you suggest)?’ 

Posting

1. In your Discussion Post first provide some context to the nursing situation you observed as described above in Think About It (a few sentences). Then consider the four critical questions of emancipatory knowing as they apply to the situation and use them to guide your post. Describe how they are demonstrated in your situation. Don’t forget to cite your post – use the text and a journal article to support your work.

2. In your Peer Response provide supportive feedback about the situation they faced and how they were impacted. You can share a similar experience or offer advice. Don’t forget the citation.

Example of an Initial Discussion Post with APA Citation

  One of the situations that I observed that was unfair is constantly being understaffed as an ICU nurse. There is an increased mortality rate in ICU patients when there are disproportionately high staffing ratios (Cho et al., 2018).  ICU nurses should have 1-2 patients but where I work having a 3rd patient is the norm and during the height of COVID we would often have 4 ventilated patients. 

Emancipatory knowing states to ask yourself four questions about the problem in order to explore solutions to it (Chinn & Kramer, 2018).  What was wrong? Ongoing, inappropriate staffing ratios were never addressed at my hospital because this had become the status quo. Patient outcomes were not seen by management as a problem because the nurses worked so hard and patients did well. Nurses either lived with the situation and coped with the moral distress or left because they were burned out. Who benefits? Ultimately the hospital because they are not being held accountable: patient outcomes are acceptable and they are able to save money instead of hiring staff or supplying agency staff.  Barriers to change include budget issues, detached administrators and managers, and nurses who are too exhausted or angry, or afraid that speaking up will end in termination. Changes that are needed are prioritizing the well-being of nurses as much as patients and not always the financial bottom line. While hospitals must have enough financial support, nurses that are valued enjoy their work more and can provide higher level care and won’t leave as easily, leading to better patient outcomes and decreased costs (Cho et al., 2018).

References

Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (2018). Knowledge development in nursing: Theory and process (10th ed.). Elsevier. 

Cho, S.H., Hwang, J.H., & Kim, J. (2018). Nurse staffing and patient mortality in intensive care units. Nursing Research, 57(5), 322-330. doi: 10.1097/01.NNR.0000313498.17777.71

Example of a Peer Response Discussion Post with APA

Hi Amy

I have never worked in the ICU but I can definitely relate with some of the things you’ve experienced.  The nursing shortage is something discussed in nursing and an unfair circumstance that nurses all over deal with way more than we should. Currently, like you, I am facing short staffing at work. It poses a risk for both patient and nurse safety; therefore, speaking up and addressing the situation is the best thing to do to address this problem. Questioning unfair and unjust situations raises the need for change so that we don’t stay stuck in a bad place. This  means that there’s a possibility for freedom from the unjust situation (Chinn & Kramer, 2018).

Reference

Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (2018). Knowledge development in nursing: Theory and process (10th ed.). Elsevier.

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