Dada,Sam Give constructive criticism on this presentation (200 words)
Topic: Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is the study of the
Give constructive criticism on this presentation (200 words)
Topic: Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is the study of the mind and how it acts as an information processor. – This meaning cognitive psychology focuses on how humans input information, store information, and retrieve information – The way individuals intake information from the world are all very different, which is why cognitive psychology is relevant
Cognitive psychology consists of many internal processes: perception, attention, memory, emotions, language, thinking, consciousness, etc. – All these different processes are what make Cognitive Psychology so elaborate and important – Cognition is an amazing ability humans have that set us apart from other living things
Empiricists and Nativists had philosophical debate over the source of knowledge. Also, these early thinkers identified several major theoretical problems that would later be studied empirically through scientific research
Using brief visual displays to examine the time needed for mental operations to take place, Donders and Cattell examined the effect of reaction time on perception of imageless thought.
A variety of cognitive topics once considered outside experimental psychology became of interest, including attention, memory, pattern recognition, images, semantic organization, language processes, thinking, and even consciousness (the most dogmatically rejected of all cognitive topics). 1954
Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory in Germany, bringing philosophical aspects of mental processes to an empirical understanding. The study of cognition continued to the end of the 19th century.
Tolman, a popular behavioral psychologist, studied rats and how they developed a map of their environment while learning to run a maze.
A study by Tanner and Swets demonstrates how cognitive processes can affect sensory thresholds.
Newell and Simon designed a computer that could solve mathematical proofs. Computer science advances led to a reexamination of basic cognitive postulates.
After studying meaningless syllables for a few seconds without verbal rehearsal, Peterson and Peterson in America and John Brown in England observed a quick loss or decay of memory, establishing the concept of a separate stage of short-term memory.
Sperling demonstrated that a very transitory memory (or information storage system) could only hold information for a short period of time. Cognitive psychology experiences a renaissance. Primary and secondary memory-related tests were conducted in the 1960s. With the help of James’ insights, it made a significant impact on current cognitive psychology. 1966
Newell and Simon designed a computer that could solve mathematical proofs. Computer science advances led to a reexamination of basic cognitive postulates. 1956 MIT hosted a conference featuring pioneering papers from Noam Chomsky, Jerome Bruner, Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, and George Miller. This phenomenon is often referred to as the Cognitive Revolution because it reemerged cognitive psychology.
George A. Miller’s paper, Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two (Miller, 1956), made a distinctive difference between short-term and long-term memory
1958 After studying meaningless syllables for a few seconds without verbal rehearsal, Peterson and Peterson in America and John Brown in England observed a quick loss or decay of memory, establishing the concept of a separate stage of short-term memory. Late 1950s The field of cognitive psychology emerged as a way of understanding the science of the mind
Hilgard and Bower created the idea of using computer programs to serve as models on theories of cognition introduced in their Theories of Learning class.
Cognitive Psychology, written by Ulric Neisser, was published in America.Neisser’s book was central to the strengthening of cognitive psychology as it gave the field its name and identified current areas.
1980s & 1990s
Construction of cognitive laboratories began, symposia and conferences appeared at national and regional meetings, courses in cognitive psychology and related topics were added to the curriculum, grants were given to people researching memory, language processing, attention, and the like, new textbooks were created on the topic of cognition, universities even hired professors in cognitive psychology to replace them with traditional experimental psychology.
American psychology was beginning to take a distinctive form with a wide range of topics under investigation.
Saw the emergence of professional journals devoted to cognitive psychology, such as Cognitive Psychology, Cognition, Memory G Cognition, and a series of symposia volumes, including the Loyola Symposium on Cognition II edited by Solso and the Carnegie-Mellon series edited by Chase and others, based on the Carnegie Symposium on Cognition.
1970s & 1980s
Serious efforts were made to find corresponding neural components that were linked to cognitive constructs
Early 20th century
William James’ ideas on philosophy, religion, and psychology shaped the intellectual history of these topics throughout the twentieth century.
History and Developments:
Cognition has been at the foreforth of psychology since its beginning. Sampson (1981) wrote, “The cognitive perspective has had a long and distinguished history in psychology; its philosophical roots can be traced through the tradition of Descartes and Kant.” ● J. S. Mill was the first to established cognitive psychology as an experimental science. Gustav Theodor Fechner showed that cognitive events as experimental. Before this, it was a common belief that behavior influenced cognitive functions (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). ● Cognitive themes, or schema, were shown to influence memory more than the mechanical laws of association by Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013).
It became known that memory is not perfect because it relies on reconstruction and degrades over time. A major contribution of cognitive psychology seen today is eyewitness testimony (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). ● Piaget demonstrated that a child’s interactions with the environment adapt and grow complex as their cognitive structure matures through experience (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013).
Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts showed the communications between nerves (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). ● In 1949, Harry Harlow provided evidence that monkeys use strategies when problem solving (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). ● Leon Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance established that people may hold two conflicting views (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). ● The use of introspection allowed the psychologist to get an image of the patient’s consciousness by breaking down their experiences. Repeated sessions would provide a greater image of their mind.
The Cognitive Revolution was brought about by Donald Hebb in 1960. Focus on behaviorism caused a stunt in the growth of cognitive psychology. According to Hergenhahn & Henley (2013), “Hebb urged that the second phase of psychology’s revolution use the scientific rigor promoted by the behaviorists to study cognitive processes.”
In 1960, George Miller and Jerome Bruner developed Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard, and by the late 1960s, cognitive psychology courses and textbooks were available (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). ● In 1962, George Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl Pribram argued information feedback explained human behavior better than S–R concepts. According to Hergenhahn & Henley (2013), this was “the first ‘classic’ in the new information processing approach to psychology.” ● By the early 1970s, information processing was the dominant form of psychology. Information processing used computer programming as the model for the inner working of the mind and nerves connections
Cognitive psychology has become quite popular in the field of science as it gives an understanding of internal mental processes. Today, cognitive psychology provides ways to deal with memory disorders, allowing better accuracy for decisions, treatment for brain injury, learning disorders and enhancing learning. It is also a rapidly growing field that only gives us a better understanding of the world around us by adding to how we can better influence our mental health and daily living through our mental processes. Many people can suffer from various issues and health problems but with the right treatment, these health and mental problems can be addressed and treated accordingly.
Attention problems are very troublesome with school or work and cognitive psychology is the solution to those issues. Even memory problems can create a big struggle for people’s lives which requires treatment from the field of cognitive psychology. Negative thoughts can often plague human beings in a dangerous manner and lead to destructive living which needs therapy for the individuals who suffer from these problems. Cognitive processes change over the course of child development to examine how the brain changes sensory inputs into how we view things which in turn leads to a better understanding of how our mind works and how it affects us in every single way and aspect of our lives.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) ● CBT is a common method of therapy for many psychological disorders including PTSD, substance abuse, anxiety, eating disorders, etc. Its primary focus is to aid one into changing how they think/feel which in turn changes unhelpful behaviors. It emphasizes the improvement of unhealthy cognitive and behavioral pattern hence its name. CBT reiterates the idea of being your own therapist by developing helpful, healthy methods to cope and think. ● There are different approaches to/types of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy that provide help for specific needs: Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). Each approach is similar to one another
Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) is commonly delivered over 12 sessions and assists individuals to challenge and adjust problematic beliefs related to trauma which allows for them to create a new profound conceptualization of the traumatic event, thus reducing its destructive effects in present life. (Common for PTSD) Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) focuses on individuals learning to living in the moment, develop healthier coping mechanisms, and regulate emotions. Mindfulness is a major component in this treatment that is to be developed which aids in ‘living in the moment’, metacognition, and understanding what is going on inside you (impulses, sensations, thoughts, feelings). Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) is an approach that aids an individual to identify irrational beliefs and negative thought patterns that can potentially elicit further cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems. REBT places emphasis on managing emotions and thoughts healthily to promote rational, thriving behaviors.
The effectiveness of Cognitive Psychology allows one to engage or look deeper into problem solving. It helps with the understanding of depression, anxiety, and even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Another important way that it is effective is that helps with long term treatment that will allow a person to be able to function and live in society. In Cognitive Psychology, the effectiveness can also help with understanding and treating triggers that causes you to display your emotions or feelings.