Discussion Part A 1. Which student groups are experiencing the achievement gap? Discuss factors that may contribute to educational inequality. 2. How can

Discussion Part A

1. Which student groups are experiencing the achievement gap? Discuss factors that may contribute to educational inequality.

2. How can

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 Part A

1. Which student groups are experiencing the achievement gap? Discuss factors that may contribute to educational inequality.

2. How can society and/or individuals support parents in gaining the cultural capital that children need to succeed academically?

You may use your learning resources for the week or find other resources outside of the classroom. Your sources must be credible. Be sure to include in-text citations and a reference list where appropriate to support your responses. 

part B 

You are a working single parent of a 16-year-old son and a 13-year-old daughter. Your son has an 11 PM curfew on weekends, but recently, he has been ignoring curfew and coming home after midnight. When you try to address this with him, he either ignores you or gets angry and starts screaming at you. When he’s at home, he tends to shut himself away in his room. His latest report card shows that his grades are slipping. You are getting very concerned, but you work full-time and parent by yourself, so you are getting frustrated as well. 

At the same time, your daughter has been telling you that she doesn’t feel well and doesn’t want to go to school. After some prodding, she shared that she has been getting teased at school and bullied online. 

After reviewing the learning resources for this week, come up with a strategy for dealing with your children that is supported by the literature on adolescent discipline. What are some of the things that you need to take into consideration? What actions would you implement to try and address the problematic behaviors you are witnessing? What actions would you avoid?

For this discussion, an excellent response will be well written and at least 2-3 paragraphs in length, incorporating at least 3 of the learning resources provided. You may also include other resources that you find outside of the classroom. Remember to use in-text citations and a reference list to identify the ideas that you learned from your sources. Any idea that came from something you read must be cited. When in doubt, cite it!

McGilley, Beth M., and Tamara L. Pryor. ‘‘Assessment and

Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa.’’ American Family

Physician 57 (June 1998): 1339.

Miller, Karl E. ‘‘Cognitive Behavior Treatment of Bulimia

Nervosa.’’ American Family Physician 63 (February 1,

2001): 536.

‘‘Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition

Intervention in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa,

Bulimia Nervosa, and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise

Specified.’’ Journal of the American Dietetic Association

101 (July 2001): 810–28.

Romano, Steven J., Katherine A. Halmi, Neena P. San-

kar, and others. ‘‘A Placebo-Controlled Study of

Fluoxetine in Continued Treatment of Bulimia

Nervosa After Successful Acute Fluoxetine Treat-

ment.’’ American Journal of Psychiatry 159 (January

2002): 96–102.

Steiger, Howard, Lise Gauvin, Mimi Israel, and others.

‘‘Association of Serotonin and Cortisol Indices with

Childhood Abuse in Bulimia Nervosa.’’ Archives of

General Psychiatry 58 (September 2001): 837.

Vink, T., A. Hinney, A. A. van Elburg, and others. ‘‘Asso-

ciation Between an Agouti-Related Protein Gene Poly-

morphism and Anorexia Nervosa.’’ Molecular

Psychiatry 6 (May 2001): 325–28.

Walling, Anne D. ‘‘Anti-Nausea Drug Promising in Treat-

ment of Bulimia Nervosa.’’ American Family Physician

62 (September 1, 2000): 1156.


Academy for Eating Disorders, Montefiore Medical School,

Adolescent Medicine. 111 East 210th Street, Bronx, NY

10467. Telephone: (718) 920-6782.

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

3615 Wisconsin Avenue N.W., Washington, DC 20016-

3007. Telephone: (202) 966-7300. Fax: (202) 966-2891.


American Anorexia/Bulimia Association. 165 W. 46th

Street, Suite 1108, New York, NY 10036. Telephone:

(212) 575-6200.

American Dietetic Association. Telephone: (800) 877-1600.


Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders, Inc.

(ANRED). P.O. Box 5102, Eugene, OR 97405. Tele-

phone: (541) 344-1144. <http://www.anred.com>.

Center for the Study of Anorexia and Bulimia. 1 W. 91st St.,

New York, NY 10024. Telephone: (212) 595-3449.


‘‘Bulima Nervosa.’’ U.S. Department of Health and Human

Services. <http://www.womenshealth.gov/faq/Easy-


Rebecca Frey, PhD
Emily Jane Willingham, PhD


Bullying is a persistent pattern of threatening,
harassing, or aggressive behavior directed toward
another person or persons who are perceived as
smaller, weaker, or less powerful. Although often
thought of as a childhood phenomenon, bullying can
occur wherever people interact, most notably observ-
able in the workplace and in the home. Bullying is also
called harassment.


‘‘Kids will be kids,’’ the saying goes, so warning
signs of bullying are often overlooked as a natural part
of childhood. However, although playground bullies
have been around since time immemorial, such behav-
ior should neither be considered acceptable nor excus-
able. Bullying is a form of abuse and violence, and the
tragic Columbine High School massacre in 1999
underscores the potential dangers of unchecked

There are many forms of bullying. Bullies may
intimidate or harass their victims physically through
hitting, pushing, or other physical violence; verbally
through such actions as threats or name calling; or
psychologically through spreading rumors, making
sexual comments or gestures, or excluding the victim
from desired activities. Such behavior does not need to
occur in person: Cyberbullying is a persistent pattern
of threatening, harassing, or aggressive behavior car-
ried out online.

There are many reasons to stop bullying. Bullying
interferes with school performance, and children who
are afraid of being bullied are more likely to miss
school or drop out. Bullied children frequently expe-
rience developmental harm and fail to reach their full
physiological, social, and academic potentials. Chil-
dren who are bullied grow increasingly insecure and
anxious, and have persistently decreased self-esteem
and greater depression than their peers, often even as
adults. Children have even been known to commit
suicide as a result of being bullied.

People who are bullies as children often become
bullies as adults. Bullying behavior in the home is
called child abuse or spousal abuse. Bullying also
occurs in prisons and in churches.

Recently, attention has been turned to the topic of
bullying in the workplace (sometimes called harass-
ment), where bosses and organizational peers bully
those whom they perceive as their inferiors or weaker

G A L E E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F M E N T A L H E A L T H , S E C O N D E D I T I O N 183



than they. Those bullied at work often become per-

ceived as ineffective, thus abrogating their career suc-

cess and influencing their earning potential. Victims of

workplace bullying often change jobs in search of a

less hostile environment because organizations are

frequently not sensitive to the issue of workplace bul-

lying or equipped to adequately or justly deal with it.


Bullying in children

Bullying among children is a persistent and sub-

stantial problem. According to a study published in

2001 by the Kaiser Family Foundation and Nickel-

odeon Television, 55% of 8–11-year-olds and 68% of

12–15-year-olds said that bullying is a ‘‘big problem’’

for people their age. Seventy-four percent of the 8–11-

year-olds and 86% of the 12–15-year-olds also

reported that children were bullied or teased at their

school. Children at greatest risk of being bullied are

those who are perceived as social isolates or outcasts

by their peers, have a history of changing schools, have

poor social skills and a desire to fit in ‘‘at any cost,’’ are

defenseless, or are viewed by their peers as being


A study of more than 16,000 children in the sixth
through tenth grades conducted for the National Insti-
tute of Child Health and Human Development found
that bullying is a common problem in the United
States and requires serious attention. Nearly 60% of
the children responding to the survey reported that
they had been victims of rumors. More than 50% of
the children reported that they had been the victims of
sexual harassment.

The National Center for Education Statistics
(NCES) of the U.S. Department of Education found
that white, non-Hispanic children were more likely to
report being the victims of bullying than black or other
non-Hispanic children. Younger children were more
likely to report being bullied than older children, and
children attending schools with gangs were more likely
to report being bullied than children in schools with-
out a major gang presence. No differences were found
in these patterns between public and private schools.
Fewer children reported bullying in schools that were
supervised by police officers, security officers, or staff

A young boy faces bullying from older and bigger kids. (Gideon Mendel/Alamy)

184 G A L E E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F M E N T A L H E A L T H , S E C O N D E D I T I O N



hallway monitors. Victims of bullying were more
likely to be criminally victimized at school than were
other children. Victims of bullying were more afraid of
being attacked both at school and elsewhere and more
likely to avoid certain areas of school (for example, the
cafeteria, hallways or stairs, or restrooms) or activities
where bullying was more likely to take place. Signifi-
cantly, victims of bullies were more likely to report
that they carried weapons to school for protection.

Children who are identified as bullies by the time
they are eight years of age are six times more likely
than other children to have a criminal conviction by
the time they are 24 years old. Bullying behavior may
also be accompanied by other inappropriate behavior,
including criminal, delinquent, or gang behavior.

Bullying in the workplace

Although research has been conducted on bully-
ing in Europe for some time, the topic has only
recently become of interest in the United States.
There are no ‘‘official’’ figures currently available for
incidents of bullying in the workplace. However, the
nonprofit Workplace Bullying Institute conducted
an informal survey of 1,000 self-selected volunteer
respondents. Although it cannot be assumed that the
volunteers answering the survey are representative of
individuals in the workplace in general, the results do
give food for thought concerning the prevalence of
workplace bullying.

In the survey, 80% of the women and 20% of the
men reported having been bullied at work. Sixty-one
percent of the victims of workplace bullying said that
the behavior was ongoing. The survey also found that
70% of victims of workplace bullying lose their jobs:
37% of the victims were fired or involuntarily termi-
nated and 16% of the victims transferred to another
position within the same organization. On the other
hand, the survey found that only 4% of bullies stopped
their aggressive or harassing actions after punishment
and that only 9% of workplace bullies were trans-
ferred, fired, or involuntarily terminated. Contrary
to the cartoon portrait of male bullies, the survey
showed that 50% of workplace bullying was done by
women victimizing other women. Men bullying
women accounted for only 30% of bullying, while
men bullying men accounted for 12% of workplace
bullying and women bullying men accounted for 8%.
The figure with women bullying other women is par-
ticularly interesting because such same-sex harass-
ment (with the exception of sexual harassment) is
usually outside the scope of antidiscrimination laws
and is typically not tracked.

Causes and symptoms

As of this writing, there is no evidence to support
the theory that there is a genetic component to bully-
ing behavior. Particularly in children, it is most often
theorized that bullying is a result of the bully copying
the actions of role models who bully others. This
frequently happens when bullies come from a home
in which one parent bullies another or one or both
parents bully the children. When such behavior is
modeled for children with personality traits such as
lack of impulse control or aggression, they are partic-
ularly prone to bullying behavior, which is often con-
tinued into adulthood.

Bullying in children

According to the U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, children with dominant personal-
ities and who are more impulsive and active are more
prone to becoming bullies than children without
these traits. Bullies also often have a history of emo-
tional or behavioral problems. Victims of bullying,
on the other hand, tend to be more anxious, insecure,
and socially isolated than their peers, and often lack
age-appropriate social skills. The probability of vic-
timization can be compounded when the victim has
low self-esteem due to physical characteristics (for
example, the victim believes her/himself to be unat-
tractive or is outside the normal range for height or
weight) or problems (for example, health problems or
physical or mental disability).

Warning signs and factors that may indicate risk
for being or becoming a bully include:

� lack of impulse control (frequent loss of temper,
extreme impulsiveness, easily frustrated, extreme
mood swings)

� family factors (abuse or violence within the family,
substance or alcohol abuse within the family, overly
permissive parenting, lack of clear limits, inadequate
parental supervision, harsh/corporal punishment,
child abuse, inconsistent parenting)

� behavioral symptoms (gang affiliation, name calling
or abusive language, carrying a weapon, hurting ani-
mals, alcohol or drug abuse, making serious threats,
vandalizing or damaging property, frequent physical

Symptoms that a child may be being bullied

� social withdrawal or isolation (few or no friends;
feeling isolated, sad, and alone; feeling picked on or
persecuted; feeling rejected or not liked; having poor
social skills)

G A L E E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F M E N T A L H E A L T H , S E C O N D E D I T I O N 185



� somatic complaints (frequent complaints about ill-
ness; displaying victim body language, including
hanging head, hunching shoulders, and avoiding
eye contact)

� avoidant behavior (not wanting to go to school; skips
classes or skips school)

� affective reactions (crying easily; having mood
swings; talking about hopelessness, running away,
or suicide)

� physical clues (bringing home damaged possessions
or reports that belongings were ‘‘lost’’)

� behavior changes (changes in eating or sleeping

� aggressive behavior (threatening violence to self or
others, taking or attempting to take weapon to

Each child will react to bullying in a different
manner, and some children will react with only a few
of these symptoms. This, however, does not mean that
bullying is not severe or that intervention is not

Bullying in the workplace

Bullying in the workplace is usually motivated by
political rather than personal reasons. Workers com-
pete over scarce resources such as promotions, raises,
and the corner office or other honors. In an attempt to
climb the ladder of success, some individuals do what
they can to not only present themselves in a good light
to their superiors, but to make one or more coworkers
seem unworthy or inept. Bullying bosses demonstrate
poor leadership styles and poor motivational skills,
frequently attempting to further either their own or
the company’s agenda through harassment, belittling,
or other negative behaviors.

Common tactics used by bullies in the workplace

� discounting/belittling victim in public (making state-
ments such as ‘‘that’s silly’’ in response to victim’s
ideas, disregarding evidence of satisfactory or super-
lative work done by victim, taking credit for victim’s

� false accusations (rumors about victim, lies about
victim’s performance)

� harassment (verbal putdowns based on gender, race,

� isolating behaviors (encouraging others to turn
against victim, socially or physically isolating the
victim from others)

� nonverbal aggression (staring, glaring, silent treatment)

� sabotages victim’s work

� unequal treatment (retaliating against victim who
files a complaint, making up arbitrary rules for vic-
tim to follow, assigning undesirable work as a pun-
ishment, making unreasonable/unreachable goals or
deadlines for victim, performing a constructive dis-
charge of duties)


Bullying in itself is not a mental disorder, although

aggressive or harassing behavior may be symptomatic

of a number of disorders, particularly antisocial per-
sonality disorder and schizoid behavior. There are,
however, a number of criteria to help determine if

someone is a bully. First, to qualify as bullying, the

bully’s behavior must be intended to cause physical or

psychological harm to the other person. Second, bully-

ing behavior is not an isolated incident but results in a

consistent pattern of such behavior over time. Third,

bullying occurs where there is an imbalance of power

whereby the bully has more physical or psychological

power than the victim. Harassing behavior is not con-

sidered to be bullying if it occurs between individuals of

equal strength and status or if it is a one-time event.

Bullying behavior in children can include any of
the following behaviors:

� dominance (enjoying feeling powerful and in control,
seeking to dominate or manipulate others, being a
poor winner or loser)

� lack of empathy (deriving satisfaction from the fears,
pain, or discomfort of others; enjoying conflict
between others; displaying intolerance and prejudice
toward others)

� negative emotions or violence (displaying uncon-
trolled anger or a pattern of impulsive and chronic
hitting, intimidating, or aggressive behavior)

� lack of responsibility (blaming others for his/her

� other behaviors (using drugs or alcohol, or being a
gang member; hiding bullying behavior from adults;
having a history of discipline problems)

Victims of bullying—whether children or adults—

may need to be assessed and treated for an anxiety
disorder if they need help responding to or recovering

from bullying.

Treatments and prevention

If bullying behavior is symptomatic of an under-
lying mental disorder such as antisocial personality
disorder, treatment and prevention should be guided
by and address the underlying disorder. For situations

186 G A L E E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F M E N T A L H E A L T H , S E C O N D E D I T I O N



in which bullying behavior is not part of a pattern
associated with an underlying mental disorder, treat-
ment and establishing organizational or familial proc-
esses for dealing with it are required.

Bullying in children

To help keep a child from becoming a bully, it is
important to be a role model for nonviolent behavior.
Parents should also clearly communicate to the child
that bullying behavior is not acceptable, and clear
limits should be established for acceptable behavior
and consequences for ignoring the limits should be
defined. Teaching good social skills—including effica-
cious conflict resolution skills and anger management
skills—can also help potential bullies learn alternative,
socially acceptable behaviors. If the child persists in
bullying behavior or if the parent(s) suspect that their
child is a bully, help can be sought from mental health
professionals and school counselors. Taking the child
to a child psychologist and participating in family
therapy as appropriate can help teach a bully better
interpersonal skills. Contacting the school counselor
or a child psychologist is also an appropriate step in
helping the victims of bullies.

If parents suspect that their child may be being
bullied, they should make sure that he or she under-
standsthatthe problem isnot hisor herfaultand that he
or she does not have to face the situation alone. Parents
can discuss ways to deal with bullies, including walking
away, being assertive, and getting help. Parents should
also encourage the child to report bullying behavior to a
teacher, counselor, or other trusted adult. However,
parents should not try to resolve the situation them-
selves but should contact the school to report the behav-
ior and for recommendations for further assistance.

Bullying in the workplace

Bullying in the workplace can be minimized if the
organization develops and enforces anti-harassment
policies and procedures. These should include a stated
definition on what constitutes harassment, creating
and implementing a disciplinary system to punish the
bully rather than the victim, and instituting a formal
grievance system to report workplace bullying. Other
measures that can be taken include inclusiveness and
harassment training, awareness training to educate
employees on how to spot bullying behavior, and
offering courses in conflict resolution, anger manage-
ment, or assertiveness training.

Bullies are not the only ones needing help. The
intention of a bully is to harm the other person; vic-
tims, therefore, may experience a number of negative

consequences from being the victim of a bully. If the
behavior associated with being a victim persists after
the bullying situation has been resolved or if the sit-
uation continues without just resolution, victims
should be assessed for depression and/or an anxiety
disorder if their symptoms warrant, and receive the
appropriate treatment.



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Antisocial personality disorder—A personality dis-
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Anxiety disorder—A group of mood disorders
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stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, gener-
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Representative sample—A subset of the overall
population of interest that is chosen so that it accu-
rately displays the same essential characteristics of
the larger population in the same proportion.

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American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3615
Wisconsin Avenue N.W., Washington, DC 20016-3007.
Telephone: (202) 966-7300. <http://www.aacap.org>.

Mental Health America. 2000 N. Beauregard Street, 6th

Floor, Alexandria, VA 22311. Telephone: (800) 969-
6642. TTY: (800) 433-5959. <http://www.nmha.org>.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Develop-

ment. P.O. Box 3006, Rockville, MD 20847. Tele-
phone: (800) 370-2943. TTY: Telephone: (888) 320-
6942. <http://www.nichd.nih.gov>.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Public Infor-
mation and Communications Branch. 6001 Executive
Boulevard, Room 8184, MSC 9663, Bethesda, MD

20892-9663. Telephone: (866) 615-6464. TTY: (866)
415-8051. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov>.

National Mental Health Information Center. P.O. Box

42557, Washington, DC 20015. Telephone: (800) 789-

2647. TDD: (866) 889-2647. <http://mentalhealth.


National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center. P.O.
Box 10809, Rockville, MD 20849-0809. Telephone:
(866) 723-3968. TTY: (888) 503-3952. <http://www.

U.S. Human Resources and Service Administration, Stop
Bullying Now!<http://www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov>.

Workplace Bullying Institute. Telephone: (360) 656-6630.

<http://www .bullyinginstitute.org>.

Ruth A. Wienclaw, PhD


Bupropion is an antidepressant drug used to ele-
vate mood and promote recovery of a normal range of
emotions in patients with depressive disorders. In

188 G A L E E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F M E N T A L H E A L T H , S E C O N D E D I T I O N




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