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Northern America was a struggling society amidst the entry of the African captives. Every colony within America practiced the art of slavery; hence it had laws and regulations that protected it. The majority of the enslaved people comprised Africans imported to work in the large fields and plantations (TeacherServe, 2010). However, it is essential to note that various factors influenced the experience of the Africans in America, such as social and cultural. Socially, slavery introduced various experiences to the enslaved Africans. Humans are social, as depicted through their dependence on one another to survive. Therefore, they live in groups with a common language, traditions, and culture (TeacherServe, 2010). However, through slavery, the social experiences changed in various ways. Before slavery, the African Americans lived in families, clans, and groups that ensured their survival. The introduction of slavery eliminated various social aspects, including parenting, free interaction, and traditions. Having a family was prohibited among the enslaved people. Besides, it was difficult parenting since enslaved Africans that previously lived as a family was spread apart; hence the husband could be owned by a different individual from his wife and children (TeacherServe, 2010). Furthermore, the culture of the enslaved people encountered immense interference; hence in order to survive, an enslaved person had to adapt to the culture of the colonialists in America.

            Narratives developed by the enslaved people ensured the end of slavery in America and beyond. Through his book entitled “History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880,” George Washington Williams developed narratives that advocated for the abolition of slavery. As former military personnel, William became interested in race, democracy, politics, and history (Hill, 2017). His discussions portrayed ideologies on the government’s responsibilities in restricting slavery in the United States. Besides, he could interpret and simplify the Bill of Rights and the Declaration of Independence to illiterate African Americans through his knowledge. On the other hand, enslaved people’s narratives enhanced the abolitionist movement’s development by creating awareness among the enslaved persons. Frederick Douglass developed newspapers that advocated for the abolition of slavery. He massively recruited the black troops through the newspapers while dispensing his immense participation in constitutional amendments. The book published by Fredrick entitled “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American SlaveWritten by Himself” persuaded its readers from the North and South into abolishing slavery (Trent, 2022). Besides, individuals including Lemuel Hynes actively participated in writing essays and sermons that ensured the abolition of slavery. His arguments were that slavery was illegal since freedom existed naturally among humankind (McClain & Tauber, 2018).


Hill, W. B. (2017, December 12). Living with the Hydra. National Archives.

McClain, P., & Tauber, S. (2018). American government in black and white: Diversity and democracy (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press, USA.

TeacherServe. (2010). How slavery affected African American families. National Humanities Center.

Trent, N. (2022). Frederick Douglass: Abolitionist, journalist, reformer, 1818 – 1895. National Civil Rights Museum | At the Lorraine Motel.,exist%20in%20the%20United%20States.&text=One%20of%20the%20major%20ways,change%20was%20through%20his%20newspapers



Slave narratives are so important in regards to how we can continue to learn about the history of American Slaves. Most slave narratives are written or taken account through words of how American slaves were kept and treated. While American Slavery was such a disgrace to African Americans, it opened up an opportunity for the slaves to write about their experiences. Due to the writings and the messages researchers have found through the decades, we have been able to learn so much about American slavery dated back to as far as the 1600’s because the slaves were such good writers of their experiences. Even to this day it benefits us now because we can read slave narratives and can try to picture what it was like in those times; or we could at least try to paint a picture of it. I think when we put ourselves in their shoes, we become more understanding. 

I think slave narratives are not only great for educational purposes, but with the insight that they give us, we can use them as an example to advocate for the end of slavery. It is much easier to try to raise awareness on something when it is brought to the attention of many. When people are given the opportunity to read some of the slave narratives, it gives them first hand information of the direct disrespect and mistreatment that the slaves received on a daily basis throughout their entire lives. 

Specifically in the slave narrative letter written by Wendell Phillips, he wrote “You remember the old fable of “The Man and the Lion,” where the lion complained that he should not be so misrepresented “when the lions wrote history.”I am glad the time has come when the ‘lions write history’.” Although this was a quote form Wendell Phillips, who was a white man, he was writing on the behalf of American American Slaves as he was fighting for their freedoms as well. 



1. Analyze whether Thomas can recover his medical expenses under Maryland’s workers’ compensation law.

Thomas will be able to recover his medical expenses under Maryland’s workers’ compensation law. Due to Thomas being an existing employee of the company and having a previous relationship he is eligible for workers comp. Due to this incident occurring while Thomas was carrying out a task for the employer, unloading masks and respirators, he is eligible for the compensation because he suffered the broken bones while performing work for the company. This injury also occurred due to faulty/unsecured straps on the loading lift of the masks and ventilators. This fact is important because it means Thomas was not at fault/negligent for his own personal injuries, from what can be concluded with the details provided. If fault or error on Thomas’ part could be proven, then he would no longer have a strong case for the compensation.

2.  Analyze whether Sarah can recover her medical expenses under Maryland’s workers’ compensation law.

Due to Sarah being a contractor and not an employee of the Clean company, she will not recover her medical expenses under Maryland’s workers’ compensation law. Sarah’s circumstances are different then that of Thomas due to her not having a preexisting employer-employee relationship with the Clean company like Thomas. Clean would thus be clear of having to provide any compensation for Sarah, with that responsibility, if Sarah wants to pursue it, relying on her contacting company or if she had previously purchased workers compensation for herself.


Webmaster, M. D. W. C. C. (2008, April 4). Maryland Workers’ Compensation.  Maryland Workers’ Compensation Commission. Retrieved January 22, 2022, from



Thomas can recover his medical expenses under Maryland’s workers’ compensation law.  

Thomas’s broken bones in his foot happened while performing a work task, and it was an unexpected accident that is not an anticipated danger of his job.

Thomas can recover his medical expenses under Maryland’s workers’ compensation law due to being a covered employee that sustained an injury while performing a work related task, that under normal circumstances would not result in a dangerous situation.  

Md. Code, Labor and Employment § 9-203


Sarah cannot recover her medical expenses under Maryland’s workers’ compensation law because she is not employed by Clean. 

Sarah is an independent contractor and therefore Clean is not under an obligation to provide workers compensation as she is not an employee.

Sarah cannot recover her medical expenses under Maryland’s workers’ compensation law because she is an independent contractor.

Md. Code, Labor and Employment § 9-205

 Effective Global Leadership Models

Peer Responses

Students are required to post 2 responses to other students each week and should respond to questions asked by the instructor.  These responses should also contain in-text citations for scholarly resources to support your ideas. Peer responses are not accepted after the last day of the learning week they are due. Please remember to practice online civility when responding to your classmates and adhere to netiquette policies set by the university.     


Global operation and leadership is challenging are culture can play a major part of that organization and leadership style.  I do believe they are effective models but some approaches may not be traditional. Servant, authentic and ethical leadership include humility, selflessness, serving, and developing others, emphasizing shared leadership, modeling integrity and authenticity,  inspiring, influencing, honest and trustworthy, good stewards, empowering of others, and committed to building sense of community ( van Dierendonck, 2011 ). 

An example of servant leadership of a global magnitude and that is effective is Aflac’s CEO Dan Amos.  Aflac operates primarily in the Us and Japan.  Dan Amos has a servant style leadership and believes that is  “He treats all employees with response and care, believing such an attitude then translates into the type of  relationships his workers will have with customers and the general public” ( Warrick, 2016 ). 

Servant leadership builds trust and identifies common areas that can bridge cultural differences.  Cultures are different so the key is to understand the culture then apply that knowledge to servant leadership. Service before your self rewards and desires.  Servant leadership increases ethical approaches and in the global market today, ethics are a sensitive matter. “This increased emphasis on ethics is, at least in part, a response to an ever demanding public that no longer accepts obtaining profits as the only role of business” ( Kiker, Callahan, Kiker, 2019 ).  Servant leadership is an effective global model that can be utilized by organizations. 




Kiker, D. S., Callahan, J. S., & Kiker, M. B. (2019). Exploring the boundaries of servant leadership: A meta-analysis of the main and moderating effects of servant leadership on behavioral and affective outcomes. Journal of Managerial Issues31(2), 172-117.

van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1228–1261.

Warrick, D. D. (2016). 

Leadership: A high impact approach

. Bridgepoint Education.


Yes, each global leadership model is important and effective models to integrate and use within different types of organizations, different cultures, and in different countries. Warrick (2016) stated, “also, managers in multinational forces find that they must adapt to multicultural diversity, including differences in languages, religion, social morals, and methods of conducting business” (sect. 9.1).

Servant leadership in particular is most effective within different cultures and countries since it works simultaneously with positive leadership and principle-centered leadership (Warrick, 2016). The servant leadership model includes putting service of others before one’s own self-interest, listening first to build confidence in others, nourish others and help them become whole, and inspire trust by being trustworthy (Warrick, 2016). According to Warrick (2016), “typical characteristics of servant leaders include humility and selflessness, serving and developing others, emphasizing shared leadership, having a selfless love for others, valuing people, modeling integrity and authenticity, inspiring and influencing others, being honest and trustworthy, being a good steward, empowering others, forgiving others, consulting and involving others, and committing to building a sense of community” (sect. 4.1). Moreover, servant leadership is a guiding philosophy that builds positive relationships with followers, and actions and decisions follow ethical and moral principles (Warrick, 2016).

Authentic leaders are self-aware and genuine; mission driven and focused on results; lead with their heart, and focus on the long-term (Kruse, 2013). Effective leaders similarly instill the five dimensions of emotional intelligence that includes the following: self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills (Baack, 2017). Other leadership traits that are beneficial for leaders and organizations to embrace as part of their values includes servant leadership, authentic leadership, and inspirational leadership that correlate to empathy. To be an authentic leader is to do as you say and ask others to do, build strong relationships, are self-aware, and are passionate about the mission and values in the workplace (Northouse, 2018). Intesarach et al. (2021) stated, “an authentic leader is a person who builds solid relationships with others through trust, love, and empathy: moreover, who is a person trusted by everyone with whom he/she works and communicates” (p. 71).

Ethical leadership is extremely important and an expectation from all organizations globally to be truthful, and people count on leaders to have high standards and morals for decision making (Warrick, 2016).  Ethical codes can guide leaders and motivate employees by making ethical decisions that also help reduce unethical practices and behaviors (Warrick, 2016). Warrick (2016) stated, “a person’s sense of ethics is a function of the degree to which his or her values, principles, and actions are considered to be at a high, moral, consistent, and uncompromising level” (sect. 8.3). Thus, ethical leadership is an effective global leadership model.


Intesarach, R. & Ueasangkomsate, P. (2021). Conceptualization and research trends on authentic leadership.  IEEE. 69-72. (Links to an external site.)

Kruse, K. (2013). What is authentic leadership? Link to an external site. (Links to an external site.)

Warrick, D. D. (2016). Leadership: A high impact approach. Bridgepoint Education. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)


 Effective Leadership Style

Peer Responses

Students are required to post 2 responses to other students each week and should respond to questions asked by the instructor.  These responses should also contain in-text citations for scholarly resources to support your ideas. Peer responses are not accepted after the last day of the learning week they are due. Please remember to practice online civility when responding to your classmates and adhere to netiquette policies set by the university.     


Of the seven steps to A Truly Effective Leadership Style, one of my previous manager’s checks most of the boxes but I will discuss three of them. She was bold and did not care what others thought of her, not in an obnoxious way but with confidence. If she had a point to make, she ensured that she was heard especially when senior level leaders were present. She believed in taking an opportunity and running with it because you may never be presented with another chance. As stated by Hourston (2013), “To grab the attention of your bosses, you need to swallow a bold pill and confidently make your point with as little padding as possible”. Be Going Somewhere is another step she took so well and was deliberate about it. She was a visionary and had a knack of explaining things to employees in a way that made them buy into whatever it was because she broke things down properly. This made everyone earn her trust. Be True to you by not claiming to know everything. She was good at being vulnerable when need be and being accountable when the team failed at something. She was always willing to learn and show employees that she was human. According to Hourston (2013), “If you’re not being authentic, people will see straight through you”.

My eight step which is also a highly prized leadership style is being always Ethical. An ethical leader leads by example and does what they say they will do. It is important because followers emulate what they see their leaders do so this is a good way to set the tone and culture for an organization. An ethical leader encourages followers to hold him or her accountable and vice versa. As Gandolfi et, al;(2018) states “leaders and followers should raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality”.  



Gandolfi, F., & Stone, S. (2018). Leadership, Leadership Styles, and Servant Leadership. Journal of Management Research (09725814)18(4), 261–269.

Hourston, R. (2013, April 24). 
7 steps to a truly effective leadership style (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)
Forbes. Retrieved from


As we have learned in this course, there are many leadership styles. Each has its unique traits that allow leaders to be authentic in how they lead. According to Rebecca Hourston (2013), there are seven steps to being an effective leader. I once worked for a supervisor that exemplified those steps and more.

My previous supervisor was an effective leader. In evaluating the seven steps in relation to his leadership style, I would say he was very confident in his leadership abilities. He always led with authority and certainty when giving out instructions. When he spoke, he commanded the attention of everyone. If there was ever a time that he was unsure of something, no one could tell. His signature leadership style was a combination of directive and visionary. He was innovative in that he was always one step ahead in his creativity and always seeking the next best thing for the organization. He made his objectives very clear and made sure everyone understood what the goals were. Being a visionary leader also made him a transformational leader. He inspired his followers.

Although he was seen as a visionary and transformational leader at his core, there were times when he had to change leadership styles because the situation called for it. During a crisis, he would sometimes exhibit traits of a situational leader but still remained true to his unique leadership style. An effective leader is all about the next best thing or always has a vision or an objective that would take the organization to the next level. He talked about the competition quite a bit and always reminded the staff that we had to make sure we knew what the “other guy” was doing so that we would either do it better or take it to the next level. At times though, he would get so engrossed in the competition that his vision was bigger than was a reality. There were many times when we saw the big picture on the whiteboard but had to take baby steps to accomplish it. Sometimes it took longer than he would hope, but it always got done, eventually.

I believe his biggest strength was his ability to connect with employees at all levels. He was inspiring and empowering. I credit my ability to empower employees to watch how he made his employees feel they were capable when they really didn’t feel that way about themselves. I also watched how those employees felt a sense of value and began behaving like leaders when they were given authority over their tasks. Empowerment involves trusting employees enough to give them autonomy to make decisions on assigned tasks (Warrick, 2016).

Most leaders are self-directing and over-achievers. They take care of everything and leave themselves for last. According to Houston, effective leaders must have a balanced life (2013). Sometimes, even the best-intentioned leaders can get burned out and make mistakes. He was a husband and a father outside of work. Although he worked long hours during the weekdays, his weekends were dedicated to his family. He made it a point to not take work with him or be available for work-related communications.

The seventh step for an effective leadership style is authenticity. Leaders must always be true to themselves. When a person tries to be something other than authentic, it comes across as fake and is easily recognized by others around (Hourston, 2013). His personality was always the same. He never pretended to be what he was not, or try to please others. He lead with integrity and did not compromise his values (Bishop, 2013). At his core, he was a people person and it showed in his leadership style on a consistent basis.

Although a combination of the seven steps described above reflects an effective leader, I would add ethics as an additional step to a truly effective leadership style. No leadership style, in my opinion, is completely effective without good ethics. In taking a closer look, it could be determined that all of the steps need good ethics in order to be truly effective. A leader can be bold, empowering, authentic, and have a love for his family; however, if he is not ethical, none of that matters.


Bishop, W. (2013). Defining the authenticity in authentic leadership. The Journal of ValuesBased Leadership, 6(1). Retrieved from article=1077&context=jvbl

Hourston, R. (2013, April 24). 
7 steps to a truly effective leadership style (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)
. Forbes. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

Warrick, D.D. (2016). Leadership: A high impact approach

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