Hw1_ Moral question Please read pgs 67-95 in Ethics for the Information Age. Then, create your own scenario that contains a deep, moral question of intere

Hw1_ Moral question Please read pgs 67-95 in Ethics for the Information Age. Then, create your own scenario that contains a deep, moral question of intere

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Please read pgs 67-95 in Ethics for the Information Age.  Then, create your own scenario that contains a deep, moral question of interest to you.  Your scenario may be related to education field or future area of employment in the school,  a sociological issue, or a personal issue of interest.  Importantly, 2 moral question you are trying to answer must be deep enough to use the five ethical frameworks in answering.  Next, address 2 moral question using the five ethical frameworks covered in pgs 67-95 and your own ethical framework.  State your overall response to the ethical question as your conclusion.  

If applicable, include a reference section with citations in an APA format.  Use standard 1″ margins, single spacing, and 11-12 pt font.  

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Quinn, Michael J.
Ethics for the information age / Michael J. Quinn, Seattle University. — Sixth edition.

pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-374162-9 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-13-374162-1 (alk. paper)
1. Electronic data processing—Moral and ethical aspects. 2. Computers and civilization.

I. Title.
QA76.9.M65Q56 2014
303.48′34—dc23 2013049611

18 17 16 15 14—RRD—10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-374162-1

ISBN 13: 978-0-13-374162-9

Brief Contents

Preface xxi

1 Catalysts for Change 1
An Interview with Dalton Conley 47

2 Introduction to Ethics 49
An Interview with James Moor 105

3 Networked Communications 109
An Interview with Michael Liebhold 159

4 Intellectual Property 161
An Interview with June Besek 223

5 Information Privacy 227
An Interview with Michael Zimmer 265

6 Privacy and the Government 269
An Interview with Jerry Berman 315

7 Computer and Network Security 319
An Interview with Matt Bishop 357

8 Computer Reliability 361
An Interview with Avi Rubin 405

9 Professional Ethics 407
An Interview with Paul Axtell 447

10 Work and Wealth 451
An Interview with Martin Ford 491

Appendix A: Plagiarism 495

Index 499

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Contents

Preface xxi

1 Catalysts for Change 1
1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Milestones in Computing 5
1.2.1 Aids to Manual Calculating 5

1.2.2 Mechanical Calculators 6

1.2.3 Cash Register 8

1.2.4 Punched-Card Tabulation 9

1.2.5 Precursors of Commercial Computers 11

1.2.6 First Commercial Computers 13

1.2.7 Programming Languages and Time-Sharing 14

1.2.8 Transistor and Integrated Circuit 15

1.2.9 IBM System/360 17

1.2.10 Microprocessor 17

1.2.11 Personal Computer 18

1.3 Milestones in Networking 21
1.3.1 Electricity and Electromagnetism 21

1.3.2 Telegraph 23

1.3.3 Telephone 24

1.3.4 Typewriter and Teletype 25

1.3.5 Radio 25

1.3.6 Television 26

1.3.7 Remote Computing 28

1.3.8 ARPANET 28

1.3.9 Email 29

1.3.10 Internet 29

1.3.11 NSFNET 31

1.3.12 Broadband 31

1.3.13 Wireless Networks 31

viii Contents

1.4 Milestones in Information Storage and Retrieval 32
1.4.1 Greek Alphabet 32

1.4.2 Codex and Paper 32

1.4.3 Gutenberg’s Printing Press 33

1.4.4 Newspapers 33

1.4.5 Hypertext 33

1.4.6 Graphical User Interface 34

1.4.7 Single-Computer Hypertext Systems 36

1.4.8 Networked Hypertext: World Wide Web 36

1.4.9 Search Engines 37

1.5 Information Technology Issues 38
Summary 39
Review Questions 41
Discussion Questions 42
In-Class Exercises 43
Further Reading and Viewing 44
References 44

An Interview with Dalton Conley 47

2 Introduction to Ethics 49
2.1 Introduction 49

2.1.1 Defining Terms 50

2.1.2 Four Scenarios 52

2.1.3 Overview of Ethical Theories 55

2.2 Subjective Relativism 56
2.2.1 The Case for Subjective Relativism 56

2.2.2 The Case against Subjective Relativism 57

2.3 Cultural Relativism 58
2.3.1 The Case for Cultural Relativism 59

2.3.2 The Case against Cultural Relativism 60

2.4 Divine Command Theory 62
2.4.1 The Case for the Divine Command Theory 62

2.4.2 The Case against the Divine Command Theory 63

2.5 Ethical Egoism 65
2.5.1 The Case for Ethical Egoism 65

2.5.2 The Case against Ethical Egoism 66

2.6 Kantianism 67
2.6.1 Good Will and the Categorical Imperative 68

2.6.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Kantianism 70

Contents ix

2.6.3 The Case for Kantianism 71

2.6.4 The Case against Kantianism 71

2.7 Act Utilitarianism 72
2.7.1 Principle of Utility 73

2.7.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Act Utilitarianism 74

2.7.3 The Case for Act Utilitarianism 75

2.7.4 The Case against Act Utilitarianism 76

2.8 Rule Utilitarianism 78
2.8.1 Basis of Rule Utilitarianism 78

2.8.2 Evaluating a Scenario Using Rule Utilitarianism 78

2.8.3 The Case for Rule Utilitarianism 79

2.8.4 The Case against Utilitarianism in General 80

2.9 Social Contract Theory 81
2.9.1 The Social Contract 81

2.9.2 Rawls’s Theory of Justice 83

2.9.3 Evaluating a Scenario Using Social Contract Theory 85

2.9.4 The Case for Social Contract Theory 86

2.9.5 The Case against Social Contract Theory 87

2.10 Virtue Ethics 89
2.10.1 Virtues and Vices 89

2.10.2 Making a Decision Using Virtue Ethics 91

2.10.3 The Case for Virtue Ethics 92

2.10.4 The Case against Virtue Ethics 93

2.11 Comparing Workable Ethical Theories 94

2.12 Morality of Breaking the Law 96
2.12.1 Social Contract Theory Perspective 96

2.12.2 Kantian Perspective 96

2.12.3 Rule Utilitarian Perspective 97

2.12.4 Act Utilitarian Perspective 97

2.12.5 Conclusion 98

Summary 98
Review Questions 99
Discussion Questions 101
In-Class Exercises 102
Further Reading and Viewing 103
References 103

An Interview with James Moor 105

x Contents

3 Networked Communications 109
3.1 Introduction 109

3.2 Spam 111
3.2.1 The Spam Epidemic 112

3.2.2 Need for Social-Technical Solutions 113

3.2.3 Case Study: Ann the Acme Accountant 114

3.3 Internet Interactions 117
3.3.1 The World Wide Web 117

3.3.2 The Rise of the App 117

3.3.3 How We Use the Internet 117

3.4 Text Messaging 120
3.4.1 Transforming Lives in Developing Countries 120

3.4.2 Twitter 121

3.4.3 Business Promotion 121

3.4.4 Political Activism 121

3.5 Censorship 122
3.5.1 Direct Censorship 122

3.5.2 Self-Censorship 123

3.5.3 Challenges Posed by the Internet 124

3.5.4 Government Filtering and Surveillance of Internet Content 124

3.5.5 Ethical Perspectives on Censorship 125

3.6 Freedom of Expression 127
3.6.1 History 127

3.6.2 Freedom of Expression Not an Absolute Right 128

3.6.3 FCC v. Pacifica Foundation 129

3.6.4 Case Study: Kate’s Blog 130

3.7 Children and Inappropriate Content 132
3.7.1 Web Filters 132

3.7.2 Child Internet Protection Act 133

3.7.3 Ethical Evaluations of CIPA 134

3.7.4 Sexting 135

3.8 Breaking Trust 137
3.8.1 Identity Theft 137

3.8.2 Chat-Room Predators 138

3.8.3 Ethical Evaluations of Police Sting Operations 139

3.8.4 False Information 141

3.8.5 Cyberbullying 142

3.9 Internet Addiction 143
3.9.1 Is Internet Addiction Real? 143

3.9.2 Contributing Factors 145

Contents xi

3.9.3 Ethical Evaluation of Internet Addiction 146

Summary 147
Review Questions 148
Discussion Questions 149
In-Class Exercises 151
Further Reading and Viewing 152
References 153

An Interview with Michael Liebhold 159

4 Intellectual Property 161
4.1 Introduction 161

4.2 Intellectual Property Rights 163
4.2.1 Property Rights 163

4.2.2 Extending the Argument to Intellectual Property 164

4.2.3 Benefits of Intellectual Property Protection 167

4.2.4 Limits to Intellectual Property Protection 167

4.3 Protecting Intellectual Property 169
4.3.1 Trade Secrets 169

4.3.2 Trademarks and Service Marks 170

4.3.3 Patents 170

4.3.4 Copyrights 172

4.4 Fair Use 176
4.4.1 Sony v. Universal City Studios 177

4.4.2 Digital Recording Technology 179

4.4.3 Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 179

4.4.4 RIAA v. Diamond Multimedia 179

4.4.5 Kelly v. Arriba Soft 180

4.4.6 Google Books 181

4.5 New Restrictions on Use 182
4.5.1 Digital Millennium Copyright Act 183

4.5.2 Digital Rights Management 184

4.5.3 Secure Digital Music Initiative 184

4.5.4 Sony BMG Music Entertainment Rootkit 184

4.5.5 Encrypting DVDs 185

4.5.6 Foiling HD-DVD Encryption 186

4.5.7 Criticisms of Digital Rights Management 186

4.5.8 Online Music Stores Drop Digital Rights Management 187

4.5.9 Microsoft Xbox One 187

4.6 Peer-to-Peer Networks and Cyberlockers 188
4.6.1 Napster 189

xii Contents

4.6.2 FastTrack 189

4.6.3 BitTorrent 190

4.6.4 RIAA Lawsuits 191

4.6.5 MGM v. Grokster 192

4.6.6 Legal Action against the Pirate Bay 194

4.6.7 PRO-IP Act 195

4.6.8 Megaupload Shutdown 195

4.6.9 Legal Music Services on the Internet 195

4.7 Protections for Software 196
4.7.1 Software Copyrights 196

4.7.2 Violations of Software Copyrights 196

4.7.3 Safe Software Development 197

4.7.4 Software Patents 198

4.8 Open-Source Software 200
4.8.1 Consequences of Proprietary Software 200

4.8.2 “Open Source” Definition 201

4.8.3 Beneficial Consequences of Open-Source Software 202

4.8.4 Examples of Open-Source Software 202

4.8.5 The GNU Project and Linux 203

4.8.6 Impact of Open-Source Software 204

4.8.7 Critique of the Open-Source Software Movement 204

4.9 Legitimacy of Intellectual Property Protection for Software 205
4.9.1 Rights-Based Analysis 205

4.9.2 Utilitarian Analysis 206

4.9.3 Conclusion 207

4.10 Creative Commons 208
Summary 210
Review Questions 213
Discussion Questions 214
In-Class Exercises 214
Further Reading and Viewing 215
References 216

An Interview with June Besek 223

5 Information Privacy 227
5.1 Introduction 227

5.2 Perspectives on Privacy 229
5.2.1 Defining Privacy 229

5.2.2 Harms and Benefits of Privacy 230

5.2.3 Is There a Natural Right to Privacy? 232

Contents xiii

5.2.4 Privacy and Trust 236

5.2.5 Case Study: The New Parents 236

5.3 Information Disclosures 238
5.3.1 Facebook Tags 240

5.3.2 Enhanced 911 Services 240

5.3.3 Rewards or Loyalty Programs 241

5.3.4 Body Scanners 241

5.3.5 RFID Tags 242

5.3.6 Implanted Chips 243

5.3.7 OnStar 244

5.3.8 Automobile “Black Boxes” 244

5.3.9 Medical Records 245

5.3.10 Digital Video Recorders 245

5.3.11 Cookies and Flash Cookies 245

5.4 Data Mining 246
5.4.1 Data Mining Defined 246

5.4.2 Opt-In versus Opt-Out Policies 247

5.4.3 Examples of Data Mining 248

5.4.4 Social Network Analysis 251

5.5 Examples of Consumer Backlash 252
5.5.1 Marketplace: Households 252

5.5.2 Facebook Beacon 253

5.5.3 Netflix Prize 253

5.5.4 Malls Track Shoppers’ Cell Phones 254

5.5.5 iPhone Apps Uploading Address Books 254

5.5.6 Instagram’s Proposed Change to Terms of Service 255

Summary 255
Review Questions 256
Discussion Questions 257
In-Class Exercises 259
Further Reading and Viewing 260
References 261

An Interview with Michael Zimmer 265

6 Privacy and the Government 269
6.1 Introduction 269

6.2 US Legislation Restricting Information Collection 271
6.2.1 Employee Polygraph Protection Act 271

6.2.2 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act 271

6.2.3 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act 271

xiv Contents

6.3 Information Collection by the Government 272
6.3.1 Census Records 272

6.3.2 Internal Revenue Service Records 273

6.3.3 FBI National Crime Information Center 2000 274

6.3.4 OneDOJ Database 275

6.3.5 Closed-Circuit Television Cameras 276

6.3.6 Police Drones 277

6.4 Covert Government Surveillance 278
6.4.1 Wiretaps and Bugs 278

6.4.2 Operation Shamrock 281

6.4.3 Carnivore Surveillance System 282

6.4.4 Covert Activities after 9/11 282

6.5 US Legislation Authorizing Wiretapping 283
6.5.1 Title III 283

6.5.2 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act 284

6.5.3 Electronic Communications Privacy Act 284

6.5.4 Stored Communications Act 285

6.5.5 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act 285

6.6 USA PATRIOT Act 286
6.6.1 Provisions of the Patriot Act 286

6.6.2 National Security Letters 287

6.6.3 Responses to the Patriot Act 288

6.6.4 Successes and Failures 289

6.6.5 Patriot Act Renewal 290

6.6.6 Long-Standing NSA Access to Telephone Records 290

6.7 Regulation of Public and Private Databases 291
6.7.1 Code of Fair Information Practices 291

6.7.2 Privacy Act of 1974 293

6.7.3 Fair Credit Reporting Act 294

6.7.4 Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act 294

6.7.5 Financial Services Modernization Act 294

6.8 Data Mining by the Government 295
6.8.1 Internal Revenue Service Audits 295

6.8.2 Syndromic Surveillance Systems 295

6.8.3 Telecommunications Records Database 295

6.8.4 Predictive Policing 296

6.9 National Identification Card 296
6.9.1 History and Role of the Social Security Number 296

6.9.2 Debate over a National ID Card 297

6.9.3 The REAL ID Act 299

Contents xv

6.10 Information Dissemination 300
6.10.1 Family Education Rights and Privacy Act 300

6.10.2 Video Privacy Protection Act 300

6.10.3 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 301

6.10.4 Freedom of Information Act 301

6.10.5 Toll Booth Records Used in Court 302

6.11 Invasion 302
6.11.1 Telemarketing 303

6.11.2 Loud Television Commercials 303

6.11.3 Requiring Identification for Pseudoephedrine Purchases 303

6.11.4 Advanced Imaging Technology Scanners 304

Summary 305
Review Questions 306
Discussion Questions 308
In-Class Exercises 309
Further Reading and Viewing 309
References 309

An Interview with Jerry Berman 315

7 Computer and Network Security 319
7.1 Introduction 319

7.2 Hacking 320
7.2.1 Hackers, Past and Present 320

7.2.2 Penalties for Hacking 321

7.2.3 Selected Hacking Incidents 322

7.2.4 Case Study: Firesheep 323

7.3 Malware 325
7.3.1 Viruses 326

7.3.2 The Internet Worm 328

7.3.3 Sasser 332

7.3.4 Instant Messaging Worms 333

7.3.5 Conficker 333

7.3.6 Cross-Site Scripting 333

7.3.7 Drive-By Downloads 333

7.3.8 Trojan Horses and Backdoor Trojans 334

7.3.9 Rootkits 334

7.3.10 Spyware and Adware 334

7.3.11 Bots and Botnets 334

7.3.12 Defensive Measures 335

xvi Contents

7.4 Cyber Crime and Cyber Attacks 335
7.4.1 Phishing and Spear Phishing 336

7.4.2 SQL Injection 336

7.4.3 Denial-of-Service and Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks 336

7.4.4 Cyber Crime 337

7.4.5 Politically Motivated Cyber Attacks 339

7.5 Online Voting 343
7.5.1 Motivation for Online Voting 343

7.5.2 Proposals 344

7.5.3 Ethical Evaluation 345

Summary 348
Review Questions 348
Discussion Questions 349
In-Class Exercises 351
Further Reading and Viewing 352
References 352

An Interview with Matt Bishop 357

8 Computer Reliability 361
8.1 Introduction 361

8.2 Data Entry or Data Retrieval Errors 362
8.2.1 Disenfranchised Voters 362

8.2.2 False Arrests 362

8.2.3 Utilitarian Analysis: Accuracy of NCIC Records 363

8.3 Software and Billing Errors 364
8.3.1 Errors Leading to System Malfunctions 364

8.3.2 Errors Leading to System Failures 365

8.3.3 Analysis: E-retailer Posts Wrong Price, Refuses to Deliver 367

8.4 Notable Software System Failures 367
8.4.1 Patriot Missile 368

8.4.2 Ariane 5 369

8.4.3 AT&T Long-Distance Network 370

8.4.4 Robot Missions to Mars 371

8.4.5 Denver International Airport 372

8.4.6 Tokyo Stock Exchange 373

8.4.7 Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machines 374

8.5 Therac-25 377
8.5.1 Genesis of the Therac-25 377

8.5.2 Chronology of Accidents and AECL Responses 378

8.5.3 Software Errors 380

8.5.4 Postmortem 382

Contents xvii

8.5.5 Moral Responsibility of the Therac-25 Team 383

8.5.6 Postscript 384

8.6 Computer Simulations 384
8.6.1 Uses of Simulation 384

8.6.2 Validating Simulations 386

8.7 Software Engineering 387
8.7.1 Specification 388

8.7.2 Development 388

8.7.3 Validation 389

8.7.4 Evolution 390

8.7.5 Software Quality Is Improving 390

8.8 Software Warranties and Vendor Liability 391
8.8.1 Shrink-wrap Warranties 391

8.8.2 Are Software Warranties Enforceable? 392

8.8.3 Should Software Be Considered a Product? 395

8.8.4 Case Study: Incredible Bulk 395

Summary 396
Review Questions 398
Discussion Questions 399
In-Class Exercises 400
Further Reading and Viewing 401
References 401

An Interview with Avi Rubin 405

9 Professional Ethics 407
9.1 Introduction 407

9.2 How Well Developed Are the Computing Professions? 409
9.2.1 Characteristics of a Fully Developed Profession 409

9.2.2 Case Study: Certified Public Accountants 410

9.2.3 How Do Computer-Related Careers Stack Up? 411

9.3 Software Engineering Code of Ethics 413

9.4 Analysis of the Code 421
9.4.1 Preamble 421

9.4.2 Alternative List of Fundamental Principles 422

9.5 Case Studies 423
9.5.1 Software Recommendation 424

9.5.2 Child Pornography 425

9.5.3 Antiworm 426

9.5.4 Consulting Opportunity 428

xviii Contents

9.6 Whistle-Blowing 430
9.6.1 Morton Thiokol/NASA 431

9.6.2 Hughes Aircraft 432

9.6.3 US Legislation Related to Whistle-Blowing 434

9.6.4 Morality of Whistle-Blowing 435

Summary 438
Review Questions 439
Discussion Questions 440
In-Class Exercises 442
Further Reading and Viewing 443
References 443

An Interview with Paul Axtell 447

10 Work and Wealth 451
10.1 Introduction 451

10.2 Automation and Employment 452
10.2.1 Automation and Job Destruction 453

10.2.2 Automation and Job Creation 455

10.2.3 Effects of Increase in Productivity 456

10.2.4 Rise of the Robots? 458

10.3 Workplace Changes 461
10.3.1 Organizational Changes 462

10.3.2 Telework 463

10.3.3 Temporary Work 465

10.3.4 Monitoring 465

10.3.5 Multinational Teams 466

10.4 Globalization 468
10.4.1 Arguments for Globalization 468

10.4.2 Arguments against Globalization 469

10.4.3 Dot-Com Bust Increases IT Sector Unemployment 470

10.4.4 Foreign Workers in the American IT Industry 470

10.4.5 Foreign Competition 471

10.5 The Digital Divide 472
10.5.1 Global Divide 473

10.5.2 Social Divide 474

10.5.3 Models of Technological Diffusion 474

10.5.4 Critiques of the Digital Divide 476

10.5.5 Massive Open Online Courses 477

10.5.6 Net Neutrality 478

Contents xix

10.6 The “Winner-Take-All Society” 479
10.6.1 Harmful Effects of Winner-Take-All 480

10.6.2 Reducing Winner-Take-All Effects 482

Summary 482
Review Questions 484
Discussion Questions 484
In-Class Exercises 486
Further Reading and Viewing 487
References 487

An Interview with Martin Ford 491

Appendix A: Plagiarism 495
Consequences of Plagiarism 495
Types of Plagiarism 495
Guidelines for Citing Sources 496
How to Avoid Plagiarism 496
Misuse of Sources 496
Additional Information 497
References 497

Index 499

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Preface

Computers and high-speed communication networks are transforming our world.
These technologies have brought us many benefits, but they have also raised many social
and ethical concerns. My view is that we ought to approach every new technology in a
thoughtful manner, considering not just its short-term benefits, but also how its long-
term use will affect our lives. A thoughtful response to information technology requires
a basic understanding of its history, an awareness of current information-technology-
related issues, and a familiarity with ethics. I have written Ethics for the Information Age
with these ends in mind.

Ethics for the Information Age is suitable for college students at all levels. The only
prerequisite is some experience using computers and the Internet. The book is appro-
priate for a stand-alone “computers and society” or “computer ethics” course offered by
a computer science, business, or philosophy department. It can also be used as a supple-
mental textbook in a technical course that devotes some time to social and ethical issues
related to computing.

As students discuss controversial issues related to information technology, they have
the opportunity to learn from one other and improve their critical thinking skills. The
provocative questions raised at the end of every chapter, together with dozens of in-class
exercises, provide many opportunities for students to express their viewpoints. My hope
is that they will get better at evaluating complex issues and defending their conclusions
with facts, sound values, and rational arguments.

WHAT’S NEW IN THE SIXTH EDITION

The most significant change in the sixth edition is the new emphasis on virtue ethics. I
have written a completely new section on virtue ethics that appears in Chapter 2, replac-
ing the description of virtue ethics that formerly appeared in the chapter on professional
ethics. In addition, I have included analyses from the perspective of virtue ethics to the
case studies appearing in Chapters 3, 5, and 7.

To increase the relevance and value of the “Further Reading and Viewing” sections,
I have eliminated the references to scholarly tomes. They have been replaced by lists of
recent magazine and newspaper articles, television interviews, documentaries, and other
videos available on the Internet. Most of the videos are only a few minutes long and can
fuel interesting classroom discussions.

In response to a suggestion from one of the reviewers, I have added a table to Chap-
ter 7 that provides students with practical tips about how to choose good passwords.

xxii Preface

The sixth edition references many important recent developments; among them are:

. Edward Snowden’s revelations of longstanding National Security Agency access to
telephone metadata, email messages, and live communications;

. the privacy implications of Twitter, Foursquare, Instagram, and other apps gather-
ing information from address books stored on smartphones;

. the controversy surrounding Microsoft’s proposal for digital rights management on
the Xbox One;

. the activities of the “hacktivist” group Anonymous;

. benefits and harms of tracking the movement of people through their smartphones;

. the debate over the use of drones by police departments;

. retailers using information collected from online sales to differentiate between cus-
tomers and offer different prices to different people;

. retailers using targeted direct marketing to win new customers;

. the use of “crowdsourcing” by companies to improve products and services;

. coverage of how cell phones are changing lives in developing countries;

. predictive policing based on data mining;

. massive open online courses (MOOCs) and implications for students from different
socio-economic groups; and

. the “Internet of Things”—Internet-connected devices that can be controlled re-
motely.

Finally, I have updated facts and figures throughout the book.

ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK

The book is divided into ten chapters. Chapter 1 has three objectives: to get the reader
thinking about the process of technological change; to present a brief history of com-
puting, networking, and information storage and retrieval; and to provide examples of
moral problems brought about by the introduction of information technology.

Chapter 2 is an introduction to ethics. It presents nine different theories of ethical
decision-making, weighing the pros and cons of each one. Five of these theories—
Kantianism, act utilitarianism, rule utilitarianism, social contract theory, and virtue
ethics—are deemed the most appropriate “tools” for analyzing moral problems in the
remaining chapters.

Chapters 3–10 discuss a wide variety of issues related to the introduction of infor-
mation technology into society. I think of these chapters as forming concentric rings
around a particular computer user.

Chapter 3 is the innermost ring, dealing with what can happen when people com-
municate over the Internet using the Web, email, and Twitter. Issues such as the increase
in spam, easy access to pornography, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction raise impor-
tant questions related to quality of life, free speech, and censorship.

Preface xxiii

The next ring, Chapter 4, deals with the creation and exchange of intellectual prop-
erty. It discusses intellectual property rights, legal safeguards for intellectual property,
the definition of fair use, digital rights management, abuses of peer-to-peer networks,
the rise of the open-source movement, and the legitimacy of intellectual property pro-
tection for software.

Chapter 5 focuses on information privacy. What is privacy exactly? Is there a natural
right to privacy? How do others learn so much about us? The chapter describes the
electronic trail that people leave behind when they use a cell phone, make credit card
purchases, open a bank account, go to a physician, or apply for a loan.

Chapter 6 focuses on privacy and the US government. Using Daniel Solove’s taxon-
omy of privacy as our organizing principle, we look at how the government has steered
between the competing interests of personal privacy and public safety. We consider US
legislation to restrict information collection and government surveillance; government
regulation of private databases and abuses of large government databases; legislation to
reduce the dissemination of information and legislation that has had the opposite effect;
and finally government actions to prevent the invasion of privacy as well as invasive gov-
ernment actions. Along the way, we discuss the implications of the USA PATRIOT Act
and the debate over the REAL ID Act to establish a de facto national identification card.

Chapter 7 focuses on the vulnerabilities of networked computers. A case study
focuses on the release of the Firesheep extension to the Firefox Web browser. A section
on malware discusses rootkits, spyware, cross-site scripting, and drive-by downloads.
We discuss common Internet-based attacks—phishing, spear-phishing, SQL injection,
denial-of-service attacks, and distributed denial-of-service attacks—and how they are
used for cyber crime, cyber espionage, and cyber attacks. We conclude with a discussion
of the risks associated with online voting.

Computerized system failures have led to lost business, the destruction of property,
human suffering, and even death. Chapter 8 describes some notable software system
failures, including the story of the Therac-25 radiation therapy system. It also discusses
the reliability of computer simulations, the emergence of software engineering as a
distinct discipl

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