Management Project – Airline Start Up 1 This is an addendum to the previous upload University of South Wales Spring Term 2016 Module: Dissertation Project

Management Project – Airline Start Up 1 This is an addendum to the previous upload University of South Wales
Spring Term 2016
Module: Dissertation Project

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This is an addendum to the previous upload

University of South Wales
Spring Term 2016
Module: Dissertation Project (Client Project 5)
Tutor: Dr. Paul Davies

Requirements Elicitation for
Mobile B2B Applications

A project-based consulting approach

Management Summary

Mobile B2B applications are an emerging issue when it comes to the adoption of new technologies in business, providing innovative opportunities for multiple operations between customers and companies. For organisations that have decided to implement such an application within the scope of a project, the requirements elicitation process depicts an important step in order to determine necessities and to build a basis for subsequent strategic decisions. This paper depicts an offer for a B2B food sector company with the intention of identifying the requirements for such a project. The introduced approach utilises approved methods and techniques from the fields of project and software management.

The offer covers an examination of three relevant categories of requirements. In order to determine the functional requirements (functionalities the B2B application has to exhibit), the methods stakeholder analysis and software benchmarking are introduced. For the structural requirements (possibility and appropriateness to implement the application within the company’s structural circumstances), system environment analysis, personnel analysis as well as risk identification and analysis cover a basis for future decisions. Finally, project time planning and life-cycle cost analysis investigate the resources requirements the company will have to face. The study will be conducted within a timeframe of 6 months (26 weeks) which is illustrated by a Gantt-chart. Overall, the holistic character of the approach, the acknowledged benefits of the individual methods as well as the recommendations which can be derived on the basis of the defined objectives will make the study of high value to the client and provide adequate information for further actions regarding the application’s programming and implementation process.

Table of Contents
1. Introduction – Background and Objectives 1
2. Supporting Evidence – The Requirements Elicitation Approach 2
2.1 Objective 1 – Functional Requirements 3
2.1.1 Stakeholder Analysis 3
2.1.2 Software Benchmarking 3
2.2 Objective 2 – Structural Requirements 4
2.2.1 System Environment Analysis 4
2.2.2 Personnel Analysis 5
2.2.3 Risk Identification and Analysis 6
2.3 Objective 3 – Resources Requirements 6
2.3.1 Project Time Planning 6
2.3.2 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis 7
3. Study Gantt-Chart 8
4. Contribution 10
4.1 Stakeholder Analysis 10
4.2 Software Benchmarking 10
4.3 System Environment Analysis 11
4.4 Personnel Analysis 11
4.5 Risk Identification and Analysis 12
4.6 Project Time Planning 12
4.7 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis 13
5. Concluding Remarks 13

I. References 14

1. Introduction – Background and Objectives

New communication technologies always bring along new chances and ways of conducting daily business operations. In this context, the utilisation of the internet to collaborate with trading partners depicts a notable advance within the last two decades. These direct electronical collaborations are commonly labelled as business-to-business (B2B) applications, which for example target “e-procurement, supply-chain management (SCM), and B2B e-payment” (Al-Naeem et al., 2005, p. 41). Due to the rise of mobile devices like smartphones or tablets and the concomitant increased usage of professionals’ mobile devices during work, especially mobile B2B applications have been evolving as an important tool for customer relationship management (Smilansky, 2015). Nowadays, people already spend more time using mobile applications than internet via traditional desktop computers (Zamfiroiu, 2015). Well-known software manufacturers already detected this development, offering mobile B2B applications for multiple business purposes (Tornack et al., 2011).

The client, an SME providing food products to catering companies, is aware of this progress and intends to program and implement a mobile B2B application for his customers. However, due to the high complexity of such IT projects, only an extensive exposure of the requirements can prevent the project from certain failure (Azadegan et al., 2013). Based on the results of more than hundred research and development projects, Dvir et al. (2003) point out that project success is strongly correlated with the definition of those requirements. In order to determine relevant requirements of this project, a study shall provide valuable information about different project necessities. Regarding software development, this process is commonly labelled as ‘requirements engineering’ respectively ‘requirements elicitation’ which describes “seeking, uncovering, acquiring and elaborating requirements for computer based systems” (Zowghi and Coulin, 2005, p. 19). Although requirements elicitation is mostly perceived as the first major step of a software engineering project, the shape of its process and used methods varies, depending on the particular project (Vijayan and Raju, 2011). Hence, this report can be understood as a consulting offer to conduct a requirements elicitation study, outlining all pertinent methods which are of importance for the individual case of the client.

It is of fundamental importance that the study as well as the development of the mobile B2B application for the client itself can be seen as projects. Projects are unique sets of temporary activities with a definable goal, which cut across functional lines and imply risks as well as costs for an organisation (Nicholas and Steyn, 2012). That is why project management methods as well as experiences from software project management case studies will take a key role in the presented requirements elicitation approach. The study covers the following objectives and related methods in order to reveal the client’s requirements for the project of developing and implementing a mobile B2B application, whereas objectives and methods build on one another:

Objective 1: Identifying the functional requirements of mobile B2B applications within the food market for catering companies

· Stakeholder Analysis

· Software Benchmarking

Objective 2: Identifying the structural requirements to program and implement the application within the current company structure and capabilities

· System Environment Analysis

· Personnel Analysis

· Risk Identification and Analysis

Objective 3: Identifying the resources requirements the client has to raise for programming, implementing and operating the mobile B2B application

· Project Time Planning

· Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

At first, the offer will illustrate the intended relevant methods which are required in order to reveal the particular requirements of the three objectives. Here, the methods are described shortly, while evidences from project management background exemplify the adequacy of the methods. Based on the introduced methods and their approximate time need, the offer will illustrate the intended approach with the aid of a Gantt chart, providing an overview with start and end times for the individual project steps and methods. Subsequently, the contribution of the particular methods and the project as a whole will elucidate why the illustrated approach is the most useful one for the company’s objectives, supported by several industry cases. Finally, the concluding remarks will summarise the main details of the offer in order to provide final decision guidance towards this offer.

2. Supporting Evidence – The Requirements Elicitation Approach

The general aim of the study is to provide a holistic research approach for the client, which covers all relevant kinds of requirements in order to assess the necessities of programming and implementing the mobile B2B application. The following chapter illustrates the background as well as the individual processes of the particular methods.

It has to be considered that the information gathering process of all the intended methods requires an open communicative exchange with the client. Changing client requirements or circumstances can occur during the whole requirements elicitation process and should be incorporated as soon as the changes are identified. Therefore, a continuous two-way communication process with the client in the form of a permanent contact person secures adequacy of the study (Nakatani et al., 2014). This is supported by Houdek and Pohl (2000) who examine the requirements elicitation process of Daimler-Chrysler projects and emphasise that over 50% of the requirements changes happen after the actual identification process.

2.1 Objective 1 – Functional Requirements

As already indicated, B2B applications are able to cover several functionalities, from being just a marketing tool to comprising a whole e-procurement system including embedded sales and payment possibilities (Al-Naeem et al., 2005). In order to provide a basis for the further requirements analyses, the examination of the functional requirements focuses on the questions, how the application has to look like to please the stakeholders and in which functional direction (e.g. sales, marketing, supply-chain management, e-payment, etc.) the application has to go. Overall, the client receives knowledge about what the market and its key players require of the B2B application.

2.1.1 Stakeholder Analysis

Stakeholder analysis as a project management technique is widely acknowledged among management practitioners and researchers as a part of the requirements elicitation process, providing a broad layer of necessary information (Glinz and Wieringa, 2007; Newcombe, 2003). Stakeholders of software are persons, organisations or other groups who affect or are affected by the software (Power, 2010). The technique tackles the questions of who the relevant project stakeholders are, how their wants and needs look like as well as how important they are in comparison to other stakeholders. It should be considered that each project has its own stakeholders which may partly not be that obvious as it would appear (Lock, 2013). All of these stakeholders have expectations for the intended software, with the wants and the needs often being in conflict with each other (Newcombe, 2003).

The stakeholder identification process for the client happens on the basis of a brainstorming meeting, as suggested by Calvert (1995). Here, also the client participates due to his superior knowledge of the internal proceedings and affected groups (Pouloudi and Whitley, 1997). The identification particularly focuses on what Sharp et al. (1999, p. 389) call ‘Baseline Stakeholders’, which represent internal and external “users, developers, legislators and decision-makers” with respect to the complete predicted software lifecycle. After the identification of the relevant stakeholders, direct stakeholder communication is necessary in order to determine their needs and requirements. This can happen through structured meetings or personal conversations. This step ensures an understanding and involvement of the relevant stakeholders from the beginning of the project (Passenheim, 2009). Also, the prioritisation of stakeholders and their individual requirements are elementary steps towards stakeholder comprehension since stakeholders are not equally important for the mobile application. Overall, this prioritisation has to consider the strategic adjustment of the company (Glinz and Wieringa, 2007). On the basis of these results, a final stakeholder matrix with objectives, priorities and contributions is produced (Lock, 2013). Difficulties during the stakeholder analysis may especially emerge in the case of hard accessibility of stakeholders as well as if there is an individual stakeholder with diverging inner objectives (e.g. in the case of a heterogeneous organisation) (Jepsen and Eskerod, 2009).

2.1.2 Software Benchmarking

On the basis of the stakeholder analysis, the subsequent software benchmarking examines if there are already existing best practice examples in the market which coincide with the results of the stakeholder analysis’ objectives. Here, the analysis especially focuses on those functional requirements, which were identified by those stakeholders with the highest prioritisation. Benchmarking describes the practice of comparing the own organisational operations with equivalent processes of industries’ market leaders. Doing so, it is possible to gather information and achieve an improvement of the own business operations by applying this information (Watson, 1993). In this sense, software benchmarking can be understood as a certain kind of focused competitive analysis which, however, also includes software companies as well as best practice examples of comparable markets. With this form of an external benchmarking analysis, it is possible to set the functional requirements of the client on a level which enables him to compete with his competitors on a qualitative and technological high level (Hines, 1998).

Since benchmarking subjects (competitors and software companies) are already set, the first step of the software benchmarking process is the collection of data (Kodali, 2008). The data collection process for software benchmarking as such is a qualitative one (Jones, 1995). The information is derived on the basis of general market reports from acknowledged data bases such as Key Note, Mintel and MarketLine as well as providers of special benchmarking reports such as Best Practices, LLC. Furthermore, the online visibilities of software manufacturers such as SAP, Oracle and Microsoft offer further information about their mobile solutions for several industry segments including the food industry. Based on the gathered data, an analysis and evaluation of the benchmarks is performed subsequently. This analysis will compare the identified stakeholder objectives with the elaborated benchmarks in order to set the final functional requirements which the mobile B2B application has to fulfil in order to achieve a possible competitive advantage within the industry (Kodali, 2008). However, it also has to be considered that benchmarking has its bottlenecks. In times of fast changing technology, it is not taken for granted that current software benchmarks remain the same benchmarks in the future. Hence, long-term developments have to be considered (Kumar and Harms, 2004).

2.2 Objective 2 – Structural Requirements

After the prior techniques exposed the functional requirements of the B2B application, the subsequent methods will focus on the question, if the client fulfils the structural requirements to program and implement an application with such functions within the current organisational environment. Especially IT, personnel as well as risk capacities play a pivotal role due to their influence on the matter whether the client is able to solve respectively control deviations and occurring risks or whether external service providers could be an alternative.

2.2.1 System Environment Analysis

The system environment analysis provides the basis for the structural requirements analysis. Before, the stakeholder matrix with its objectives and prioritisation as well as the results of the software benchmarking analysis revealed the functional requirements of the mobile B2B application (Nicholas and Steyn, 2012). Subsequently, the system environment analysis has to examine how “easy” it is to program and implement those functions within the client’s IT system environment. This process is highly relevant for the requirements elicitation process due to the necessity to embed the B2B application within the existing system environment (MacLean et al., 2004). An IT infrastructure consists of interacting subsystems which are part of the operative business (Singer et al., 2009). Embedding changes within such an IT environment which involves other entities creates constraints which are relevant due to the question whether the client is able handle these constraints (MacLean et al., 2004).

Hence, the analysis has to comprise the identification of existing systems, modules and interfaces (before) and of necessary systems, modules and interfaces (after) between the new mobile application and the existing system environment (Pries and Quigley, 2008). Furthermore, it has to reveal existing IT service, security and support processes which also have to be considered during the implementation of the B2B application. The foundation of the system environment analysis is an interview with the responsible IT leader or respectively the responsible application owner of the client, in order to get an overview of the related systems. For the case that the IT processes are administered by an external provider, it might be necessary to consult the provider as an additional information source. Also already existing system manuals can be drawn upon to collect information (Vijayan and Raju, 2011). On basis of the information gathering process, a before & after graphic of the IT environment is prepared. These graphics enable an understanding of which modules are affected by the new application and which additional interfaces respectively interface tools might be necessary to allow an automated data exchange and, hence, an operative usage of the application (Pries and Quigley, 2008). Analysing further needs which may be derived from the graphics will reveal possible necessary module adoptions. Depending on which systems are affected, it is also possible to detect which particular IT skills are needed in order to conduct these changes. This provides the basis for the subsequent personnel analysis.

2.2.2 Personnel Analysis

After coming to know which functions need to be programmed, implemented and embedded, and how those functions have to interact with the system environment, it is possible to investigate which personnel resources are necessary to implement it. In order to determine the client’s requirements, an important point is the question if the client is able to provide the necessary personnel resources. Only if the client can provide the required employees and their related skill sets which are needed for the development and implementation of a mobile B2B application, a self-initiated project is executable (Project Management Institute, 2013). Moreover, the personnel analysis has to illustrate, how the project organisation is embedded within the organisation and how the project team itself has to be structured (Passenheim, 2009).

Training time of developers and other staff in order to acquire necessary skills can be quite intricate, so a systematic personnel analysis which compares necessary tasks and roles with the human capital of the client reveals the exact personnel requirements for the project (Otero et al., 2009). In this sense, the personnel analysis depicts an actual state analysis, comparing ‘what we need’ with ‘what we have’. In this analysis, the project role planning depicts the first step. Taking the data of the functional requirements and the system environment analysis as a basis, necessary roles have to be defined and adjusted to the client’s project. The project roles also have to consider and be embedded within the organisational hierarchy, reflecting administrative as well as technical tasks (Jucan, 2013). The second major step is the actual state analysis which takes the information gathered by the project role planning, comparing it with the organisational capabilities. Here, sources are the organigram of the client, position descriptions as well as a possible personnel data base. If required, an interview with the CEO or HR principle could deliver further insights (Project Management Institute, 2013). Problems could occur if the staff and skill set of the company is given, but the staffing collides with other operational responsibilities of the client. Furthermore, it can be hard to assess the amount of required roles for a new project with a new combination of project teams (Barreto et al., 2008).

2.2.3 Risk Identification and Analysis

The last step of the structural requirements analysis is risk identification and analysis. Although project risk management approaches normally contain the steps risk identification, analysis, planning and control (Nicholas and Steyn, 2012), the objective of assessing the structural requirements of the client to realise the project just requires the execution of the first two points. There is a broad consensus that a conscientiously conducted risk management approach is one of the major steps in the preparation of each project (Passenheim, 2009). Each project contains risks which can be defined as unplanned deviations from initial objectives. Although absolute elimination of risks is not possible, the common aim is to identify and control them (Nicholas and Steyn, 2012). Project risks can be caused by multiple elements and can occur at each project stage (Lock, 2013). Furthermore, they can be either based on internal or on external factors (Maley, 2012).

The basis of the risk identification is a brainstorming meeting, which is supported by a checklist of possible project risks, as suggested by Maley (2012). The checklist is provided by Boehm (1991). Furthermore, experiences from prior client projects have an impact on the identification process (Lock, 2013). This process contains each risk that may somehow have negative consequences for the project outcome. Once identified, the risks have to be analysed in order to allow for conclusions if the client is able to handle them. The factors risk likelihood and risk impact play a pivotal role in assessing the project risks (Nicholas and Steyn, 2012). Here, the analysis provides an ordinal scale (high, medium, low) for the likelihood as well as a quantitative cost estimation for the risk impact (Maley, 2012; Passenheim, 2009). Based on this assessment, the risks can be ranked in a matrix. Due to the fact that the risk identification and analysis affect multiple requirements elicitation areas such as IT, personnel, time and costs risks, the risk identification and analysis are conducted as an overarching process (see Gantt chart). This approach enables a gapless identification, considering the possibility that other methods also reveal additional risks.

2.3 Objective 3 – Resources Requirements

After revealing the structural requirements for implementing a mobile B2B application, it is possible to conduct classical project management planning techniques in order to determine the required resources the client has to raise. The necessary resources probably constitute the most tangible kind of requirements, also because they are expressible in quantitative numbers. Overall, this analysis unveils, how long the software engineering and implementation process (including all necessary testing and coordination procedures) will take and which monetary resources will be necessary to conduct the project and handle follow-up costs.

2.3.1 Project Time Planning

Just like each project, the client’s mobile B2B software programming project consists of individual steps which have to be undertaken. In order to get an overview of the time the company has to spend for the project, project time planning is an important step to reveal temporal requirements. Especially for software engineering projects, time estimates depict a special challenge due to the high complexity and dependency on uncertain proceedings (Lock, 2013).

The two focus points of project time planning are the manufacturing of an activity-based network and on this basis, the drawing of a Gantt chart (Maley, 2012). The first step towards the network is to break down the project into activities in order to provide a foundation for estimation and scheduling activities. This step requires deeper knowledge in software programming and testing procedures, so that experiences from managers who were involved in software engineering projects as well as software engineering case studies support this step. Those sources, together with published estimation data, subsequently contribute to identify the approximate required time (Project Management Institute, 2013). Afterwards, the revealed activities have to be put into a logical sequence. Dependencies and individual task durations allow for drawing a network diagram, considering start times, end times and milestones (Passenheim, 2009). More detailed planning approaches would also consider costs and resource constraints for the individual steps, which for the scope of this study however is not relevant (Nicholas and Steyn, 2012). In the end, the network diagram results in a detailed Gantt chart, as introduced in chapter 3. Overall, the usage of project management software like MS Project is elementary for a project of such complexity and helps to avoid mistakes and secures reliability for the planning approach. Furthermore, it provides multiple options for the client regarding layout and reports of the time planning (Zhang and Bishop, 2013).

2.3.2 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

The second part of the resources requirements depicts the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. This technique tackles the questions of how much the cumulative costs for the client will be. Software products have differing life cycle phases with connected costs. However, many occurring costs are not obvious without an appropriate analysis (Eckardt et al., 2014). To determine the financial requirements of the mobile B2B application, LCC analysis appears to be a sensible approach for the client since it not only contains relevant programming and implementation costs, but also follow-up costs such as necessary operating, maintenance, support and disposal costs, from the beginning to the end of the product (Nicholas and Steyn, 2012). This technique is also necessary since those costs are interrelated with each other: Cost savings in the development and testing phase could lead to increased maintenance costs in the operating phase (Passenheim, 2009).

LCC can already be defined in the pre-project planning phase, providing an early overview over a long time range (Lindholm and Suomala, 2005). The LCC analysis considers five different types of costs: direct, indirect, contingent, intangible as well as external costs (Norris, 2001). This can for example be material, labour or overhead costs (Passenheim, 2009). The data collection process for the LCC happens with help of a bottom-up approach, applying activity-based costing which subsequently are accumulated (Vlachý, 2014). The software life cycle is separated into various phases in order to distinguish the functional stages (Kapp and Girmscheid, 2005). The results of the project time planning and its identified tasks provide a first insight over necessary project steps. The process is supported by an open-source estimation software and the calculations are based on market-based prices for hourly wages and necessary software tools (Abran, 2015). Finally, the individual costs are accumulated, providing a statement about the costs for the whole product life-cycle. However, the danger of LCC is a possible unreliability of data. Costs can vary over time, so that the analysis cannot anticipate possible changes (Higham et al., 2015). Hence, the result has to be seen more as orientation and not as hard fact. In the case of a final project implementation, the cost estimation will become on the basis of performance experiences more detailed and exact, improving its reliability (Passenheim, 2009).

3. Study Gantt-Chart

As introduced, all techniques are connected by individual implementation steps and exhibit certain process durations. In order to provide an overview of the process of the consulting project for client, consultant and stakeholders, a Gantt chart is broadly identified as a useful tool (Locke, 2013; Nicholas and Steyn, 2012). The Gantt chart considers individual implementation durations of the single project steps as well as their dependencies. The dependencies are shown as “Finish-to-start” dependencies, which means that they illustrate which steps have to be completed before the dependent and following step can begin. On the other hand, the critical path exemplifies the order of those critical steps, which have to be completed to finish the whole project (Maley, 2012).

The entire study is scheduled for 6 months, which depicts 26 weeks, with a kick off meeting initiating the project. As already indicated, a continuous consultant-client communication ensures the adequacy of the study. However, this consistent possibility for consultation does not affect the meetings which are provided for the individual techniques. The kick-off meeting at the beginning of the study introduces the involved and responsible persons and presents relevant details regarding the particular project steps, as suggested by Passenheim (2009). While the first 22 weeks are part of the data gathering process, all information and notes will be shaped in week 23 till 25 in order to produce the study. Since risk identification and analysis are overlapping activities which include multiple factors, further adoptions may be made during the resource requirements analysis. In the last week, the client will receive the final report, including a presentation with recommendations towards further actions. Furthermore, an evaluation meeting will offer the possibility for both sides to provide improvement feedback for following consulting projects.

Figure 1 illustrates the Gantt chart, the sequence of the particular methods, their durations and …

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