Peer Reply Due In An Hour due in an hour attached Memorandum Date: November, 10, 2021 To: Ernest Bartosh, Citizen Representative (Chairman) of the Publ

Peer Reply Due In An Hour due in an hour

attached Memorandum

Date: November, 10, 2021

To: Ernest Bartosh, Citizen Representative (Chairman) of the Publ

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Peer Reply Due In An Hour due in an hour

attached Memorandum

Date: November, 10, 2021

To: Ernest Bartosh, Citizen Representative (Chairman) of the Public Safety Committee

From: Ciani Algoo, Avalon Woods Resident

Subject: Request to Conduct Research on Energy Efficient Streetlights

Summary

I have been a resident of Avalon Woods sense February this year. I would like to express my concerns over the absence of streetlights for night travel (walking, jogging, driving) around the neighborhood. I would like to propose a solution that will both benefit the community and be environmentally friendly.

What is the Problem and Why Does It Need to Be Investigated?

First, it is our responsibility as humans to take care of the earth and continuously improve ourselves. Taking the initiative, to invest in solar power or energy efficient streetlights could benefit our community, but also be beneficial to the environment. Spotsylvania County has already put into effect of eliminating plastic bags and switching to brown paper bags, giving customers the option to use their own tote bags in stores, mandate recycling in apartment complexes, college campuses, and residential areas like mine. Spotsylvania county even has a place for citizens to bring in their trash and recycling. In addition, electric car charging stations are set up around the county.
Secondly, daylight savings time is taking effect and the sun begins to set around 1pm. Around 7pm it is completely dark. Residences maybe making their way home from evening walks around this time. At the same time some residences are driving home from work. Some residences do take the time to wear high visibility reflective gear, but for those that don’t wear any gear streetlight installation could come in handy. Specifically, kids and teenagers still wondering around even when the sun has set. Halloween has come and gone, during my walk around the neighborhood the street was only visible because of the decorated houses or porch lights. Drivers were cautious at least, but some people drove with their high beams on, blinding pedestrians they passed by.
Thirdly, I would like to acknowledge the fact that residences have to illuminate the mailbox with their car when picking up their mail late. There is no light post installed in that one area.
The safety of pedestrians and continuing to invest in environmentally friendly solutions can benefit the community. It is important to prevent any possible night time misfortune. There are squirrels, deer, and domesticated pets they may get out and wonder about. Streetlights will keep them visible to drivers if they decide to make their way across the street. Driver should know better than to drive without their lights on, but still reckless driving still occurs.

What Secondary Research I Have Conducted/Will Conduct about the Problem

I conducted secondary research through my school’s library database. My research is based on the importance of streetlights and environmentally friendly streetlighting solutions. The resources pulled offers information on a sustainability streetlight solution in other suburb and residential areas. A periodical on lighting design keeps an updated issue on their product design sense 1997. This resource could provide guidance on the best lighting needed for our neighborhood. Research has taught me the requirements we should check off when it comes to a sustainable useful streetlight, i.e., light output and cutoff capability.

Additionally, these resources highlight safety the streetlight installation provides. Providing evidence of streetlights improvement in the community. Interviews conducted with residences of suburban areas discuss how dark it is without streetlights and the built-up worry for their safety. One case even goes into the lack of initiative taken by the city council and the utility company when calls and reports were made about the absence of streetlights and maintenance needed to replace old blown out bulbs. Sustainable security regulations and proper installation. Reports can be made if the lights are too bright and shining into residence windows causing discomfort and irritation.

Why We Will Benefit from My Research and Recommendations

Our community will benefit from the primary and secondary research I will perform and study. Through my research, I will provide photographic evidence of the neighborhood during the day and the night. For example, a photo of the mailbox during the day and the photo of the mailbox at night as my headlights shine on the area. I will also provide alternatives to different forms of lighting the neighborhood residence could consider. I recommend taking my next-door neighbors creative lights they have strung up around the streets that guide you down our dark street behind a cul-de-sac. The lights are charged daily by solar powered with a panel propped up in the ground pointed up at the sun.

Conclusion

Sustainable streetlighting installation can benefit not only my community, but be used as a model for our county. Our county is doing so well at enforcing recycling and eliminating plastic. We could go a step further and replace more day-to-day items with more eco-friendly items. We should always strive to improve our environment, not just for us but for the children we influence. With your permission, I would like to conduct the research and provide beneficial recommendations. Please contact me through email if you would like scholarly sources I pulled through my secondary research.

Streetlight Installation in Avalon Woods

Presented to

Ernest Bartosh
Citizen Representative
(Chairman) of the Public Safety Committee
Fredericksburg, Virginia

Prepared by

Ciani Algoo
Resident of Avalon Woods
Fredericksburg, Virginia

23, November, 2021

Executive Summary

Purpose and Method of this Report

Avalon Woods is a new residential suburban area developed by Atlantic Builders. Most residences have not resided in the neighborhood for a full year. Due to low HOA, residences must accept the absence of streetlights and sidewalks. The purpose of this report is to:
· Determine the safety of residences navigating their way through the neighborhood at night.
· Recommend ways to improve residences safety in an environment friendly alternative.
Pictures are provided showing areas at night where lighting would be beneficial. Scholarly and trade journals discuss the many environmentally friendly streetlighting installation.

Findings and Conclusions

Most of the research recognized the importance of streetlight installation in an environmentally or technically advanced method. Although, some research provided solutions that were a bit expensive. Which could lead to a raise on property tax from the home owner’s association. Some respondents would prefer to purchase their own lighting sources out of pocket.
The results of this study shows that plenty of streetlighting alternatives could be used in the area.

Recommendations for Installing Efficient Streetlighting

Recommendations for Installing Efficient Streetlighting include:
· Highway Wind Power Generation
· Strategically Augmented Streetlights
· Use of PPP Arrangements
· Noise Utilization to Reduce Energy Consumption

Table of Contents

1. Introduction………………………………………………………1
1.1 Avalon Woods Streetlight………………………………………2
1.2 Purpose of Study………………………………………………..2
1.3 Scope of the Study………………………………………………2
1.4 Sources and Methods……………………………………………3
2. Conclusions………………………………………………………4
3. Recommendations………………………………………………..5
4. Findings and discussion………………………………………….6
4.1 Importance of Technically Advanced Streetlights………………6
4.2 Streetlight Investment Options………………………………..6-7
5. References………………………………………………………..8

1. Introduction

Streetlight installation in a subdivision managed by a homeowner’s association (HOA) are difficult to come by. A subdivision that purposefully leaves out streetlights and sidewalks priority are low property taxes for homeowners. The discussion on streetlight installation will be vetoed by residences of the area to avoid higher property taxes. Even though “safety and sustainability” are important factors to consider (Schwirck, 2013). In addition, depending on the streetlight material, blow outs can occur. Leading to complaints, concerns and increased cost over blown out lights by residences. According to a survey conducted by a Municipal Solid-State Lighting Consortium found that the average annual operating cost per outdoor roadway luminaire was $96 in energy and $72 in operations and maintenance (Frank, 2017). Understandably, homeowners would rather steer clear of any increasing property expenses.
There are a multitude of options to consider when it comes to streetlight installation. Advancing technology can collaborate with the environment in a more energy saving outcome. Research conducted by Communications of the ACM states that “after a first wave of 5G mobile network rollouts from 2020 onward, a second wave shall apply mm-wave frequencies for which densely deployed light poles can be appropriate ‘cell towers” (Mühlhäuser et al., 2020). “The nation’s 26.5-plus million streetlights continue conversion to LED, maintenance savings resulting from LED’s superior longevity offers a significant reason to switch alongside energy savings” (Frank, 2017).

1.1 Avalon Woods Night Lights

Fredericksburg Avalon Woods housing was established in 2019. A fairly new neighborhood that is finally wrapping up construction in the area. 90 families have settled into the area and one mailbox. One house remains under-construction. Due to low property taxing the residences live without streetlights and rock paths in place of sidewalks. Residences make do with the lighting from their front porch, lawn lamp lights and DIY solar panel lighting. A green foot print is left by routine recycling, picked up on Thursday afternoons. Residences are not allowed to disturb surrounding wilderness. Daylight’s savings time is in effect and sunset arrives earlier in the day. Nighttime driving illuminates the streets from headlights, but reckless driving is active.
1.2 Purpose of this Study

Light pollution is the alteration light levels in the night environment produced by introduction of artificial light (Falchi et. al, 2020). Artificial lighting quality can have a harmful impact on not only the environment but humans and wildlife. The purpose of this study is to outline the safety concern for outdoor nightlife. Recommend environmentally friendly and technically advanced lighting alternative. This study will also discuss the longevity of certain streetlight products and their environmental impact.
1.3 Scope of this Study

This study investigates:
· Potential street lighting alternatives
· Lighting placement
· Environmentally friendly impact
· Smart lighting impact
Possible wind power generation, forms of light augmentation and solar power are the focus of this study. Advanced environmental technology that can benefit the community in more ways than one is the end goal.
Cost towards light is considered throughout the study due to potential investment purposes. Environmental justice experts state that “good lighting is a long-term investment in the acceptance, performance and value of a place or buildings. However, there is an imbalance and inequity in the standard approach to planning, design, engineering, procurement and installation of lighting systems” (Bartholomew & Loeffler, 2021).

1.4 Sources and methods

Business periodicals and scholarly journals for research on a variety of environmentally friendly and technology advanced streetlights. Database secondary research also focused on lighting issues that relate to the community lighting. Scouting out the neighborhood to understand the landscape was conducted. Due to the pandemic interviews were not conducted. Photographs (shown below) were taken to compare and contrast the neighborhood during the day and night.

2. Conclusions

Based on the research sources from University of Mary Washington database and photographic evidence of the neighborhood, the following conclusions were made.
1. Street lighting would be beneficial where the mailbox is located.
2. Based on research there are four kinds of streetlights to could be considered for the neighborhood.
3. Residences can invest in solar panel lighting based on photographic evidences.
4. Residence could opt out of streetlight installation due to a possible increase in property taxes.

3. Recommendations

After reviewing the purpose of study and conclusion of this study, the following bulletin points provide recommendations with the purpose of providing smart environmentally friendly streetlighting.
1. Look into street lights powered by wind produced from highways. Consider the fact that Avalon Woods is located besides highway I-95. This could reduce our carbon footprint and light pollution.
2. Introduce solar panel lighting to low property taxed communities. Residence could invest in cheaper alternatives. Solar panels are long lasting and recharge through out the day.
3. Look into smart lighting that provides more than one service, i.e., boosting Wi-Fi services.
4. Looking into noise powered streetlight generators and install it by highway I-95. The highway noise can be utilized to power the lights.

4. Findings and discussion

The findings will be presented in two categories.
· Importance of Technically Advanced Streetlights
· Streetlight Investment Options

4.1 Importance of Technically Advanced Streetlights

Secondary research shows there is more to streetlights then just illumination. According to gathered research by Brewbaker, “investor-owned utilities (IOUs), such as Florida power & light, Georgia power, and Oklahoma gas & electric, as well as cities like Harrisburg, PA, Chicago, Los Angeles and Cleveland are adding intelligence via smart control technology to hundreds of thousands of streetlights and realizing significant savings each year” (Brewbaker, 2021).
4.2 Streetlight Investment Options

· Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)

Wind engineering in Saudi Arabia have constructed and tested a wind turbine with smooth assemblage. Two vertical blades are connected to a charge controller and can generate power at varying wind speeds. The MATLAB engineers constructed it “to conserve energy, diversity oil usage and incorporate renewable energy to replace conventional power plants which also help in reducing carbon footprint” (Sundaram et al, 2021). Wind production for the Avalon Woods location would be best found besides I-95 due to the frequent traffic conditions.
· Strategically Augmented Streetlights

Communications of the ACM proposed “turning urban light poles into versatile computational infrastructure extending from everyday use to emergency response” (Mühlhäuser et al, 2020). By switching streetlights into advanced infrastructures with more than one use would be beneficial to suburban and urban communities. These European designed street lamps provide “emergency preparedness, response, safety and security” (Mühlhäuser et al, 2020).
· PPP Arrangements

At Cornell University (Department of Policy Analysis and Management) proposed contracting with public private partnerships (PPP’s) for streetlight installation. According to the article “most public authorities can now enter into a streetlight modernization PPP agreement” (Marques & Geddes, 2019). “Up front investment is small and operational expenses outweigh capital expenses, generating lower payback periods and energy cost reduction with light-emitting diode (LED). Little public expenditure is necessary when private partners are compensated via shared energy saving” (Marques & Geddes, 2019).

· Noise Utilization

In Egypt sound is being proposed as an energy that can be used for streetlight. As stated by the PLOS One team at the College of Engineering and Technology “sounds can be used as a mechanical energy, it can convert to electric energy through many approaches including heating” (Farghaly et al, 2019). According to the article “using the diaphragm and through using piezoelectric materials as an approach of conversion to produce green sustainable electric energy and decrease the energy consumption from non-renewable sources and utilizing the energy” (Farghaly et al, 2019). Again, this is another great opportunity to place this design by highway I-95.

5. References

Schwirck, S. (2013, December). New Streetlights Consider Neighbors, Too. Lighting Design & Application, p.67.
Sundaram, A., Almobasher, L., Al-Eid, M., Bazroon, M., and Abohasson, A. (2021, October). Implementation of a highway wind power generation using vertical axis wind turbine to automatically power a street lamp. Wind Engineering, p.1175-1192.
Mühlhäuser, M., Meurisch, C., Stein, M., Daubert, J., Von Willich, J., Riemann, J., & Lin, W. (2020, June). Street Lamps as a Platform: Strategically augmented street lamps can become the key enabling technology in smart cities. Communications of the ACM, p.75-83.
Marques, R.C., and Geddes, R.R. (2019, June). The Use of PPP Arrangements in Street Lighting; A Win-Win Option? Annals of Public & Cooperative Economics. p.311-327.
Brewbaker, C. (2021, September). Dollars and Sense: The author makes a seven-point business case for smart street lighting. Lighting Design & Application, p.42-44.
Bartholomew, E., and Loeffler, M. (2021, September). With Good Lighting and Justice for All: The concept of ‘environmental justice’ for all communities must extend beyond clean air and water to include well-designed lighting. Lighting Design & Application, p.48-51.
Farghaly, Y.A., Hemeida, F.A.A., and Salah, Sahar. (2019, July 7). Noise utilization as an approach for reducing energy consumption in street lighting. PLoS ONE, p1-20.
Frank, N. (2017, June). Study Confirms the Need to Keep LEDs Clean: The longer life span of outdoor LED luminaires risks greater LDD. Lighting Design & Application, p.20-21.
Jones, B.A. (2018, May). Measuring externalities of energy efficiency investments using subjective well-being data: The case of LED streetlights. Resource & Energy Economics, p.18-32.

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