POP 8 RUBRIC: Peer interaction: 20 pts 20 pts Exceptional One post written in response to fellow learners’ post and is between 100-150 words. Response


Peer interaction: 20 pts

20 pts


One post written in response to fellow learners’ post and is between 100-150 words. Response

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Peer interaction: 20 pts

20 pts


One post written in response to fellow learners’ post and is between 100-150 words. Response is substantive insightful and contain at least one reference.

Grammar, Syntax & APA formatting: Postings contain no grammatical or typographical errors. Citations in the post adhere to APA format as well as references noted at the end of the post (one to two errors). (Example: excluding double-spacing and indentation of the second and subsequent lines within the reference). No more than 25% of your paper should be direct quotes.


Specific intervention to deal with H5N1

           Investment into the Multi-Modal (MM) intervention strategy for the nurses should be the way forward to dealing with H5N1 influenza. The approach promotes core components that center on dedicated programs, teams of specially trained nurse professionals, guidelines, training, and education. Accordingly, the approach recognizes the pandemic’s impact and accepts the nurses’ central role in the intervention process. The re-emergence of H1N1 and H5N1 in 2009 was a wake-up call to virus implications as a health threat to many regions globally; therefore, the outbreak of H1N1 2009 was a facet concern that led to witnessing of the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. The rapid spread of the disease internationally led to the confirmation of infection. Through the intervention program, emphasis on the transmission-based precautions will be deployed by recognizing the central part nurses play. An in-depth analysis of the approach should generate insight into its effectiveness in tackling the flu. 

Budget and cost-effectiveness

           MM approaches play an integral role in implementing sustainable infection prevention and control. As the focal stakeholders, the nurses should articulate the processes to ascertain efficiency in operations. (Liu et al., 2020) therefore, tapping into the budgeting and cost-effectiveness approaches should generate insight into the underlying factors leading to quality service delivery. 



System change

The cost implications entail evaluation of the training requirements and leveraging ergonomics and human factors to facilitate adoption

Training and development

Investment into conferences, mentorship programs, internal career development (Laskar et al., 2018).

Hygiene interventions

Nurses to be rewarded in their performance through recognition of the hygiene interventions implemented (Liu et al., 2020).

Focus on collaboration

Budget collaborative initiatives based on the involvement of Private-Public partnerships as the foundation for success (Liu et al., 2020).

Government department partnerships

CDC, FDA and department of human and health services should present the basis for data access and facilitation of the response process

            Meeting the above aspects should center on the pilot project to determine the budgeting process. The development of an interative framework should center on sufficient budgeting and analysis process (Laskar et al., 2018). The interplay of budget and cost should translate into practical decision-making.



Educational training program on H1N1

$20000 for a three month conference for the nurses in the locality

Regulatory oversight empowerment


Entry-level nursing education


Conferences with private stakeholders


            The above initiatives center on empowerment of the pandemic. The focus of the initiatives is to provide an education system that forms as the control group to determine the success of the interventions (Liu et al., 2020). Hence, the first group of nurses will be 10000 participating in the training programs.

Methods for evaluation and intervention

The MM approach entails the recognition of the evaluation and intervention approaches that can ascertain successful outcomes. Effective intervention should lead to the reduction of infections and ensure comprehensive management of the pandemic. Therefore, the implementation process should entail the integration of Evidence-Based Practices in line with the clinical nursing practices (Mermel et al., 2019). Focus on techniques that enhance the adoption and implementation of prevention should translate into conformity to the set protocols (Chen et al., 2020). The intervention techniques for the nurses should provide the framework for a deliberate and purposive action plan to adopt necessary practices and services.

In the evaluation process, emphasis on triage of practices should be adopted to determine the effectiveness of the infection management process. Emphasis on nursing monitoring can ascertain the preventive measures implemented to ensure hygiene is adopted in the healthcare setting (Mermel et al., 2019). Examining the patient background and ensuring that the health and well-being are documented ensures that situational intelligence is upheld. Equally, the infection control protocols are evaluative standards that the nurses should stick in their operational process (Mermel et al., 2019). within the evaluation and intervention is recognizing the screening guidelines and conformity to the set paradigms of operations. Tests will be issued to the nurses to determine the success of the programs. The approach will present the framework to adopt possible improvements (White, 2017). Equally, the participation of the nurses in the conferences will be evaluated based on the attendance rate. An open feedback system will necessitate vital data on the implications of the initiatives adopted.

Rationale and analysis of the findings

The MM approach is a comprehensive intervention tool that establishes the parameters of infectious disease management. H5N1 has taken a backseat in light of the pandemic. However, maintaining comprehensive awareness and preparedness for its resurgence should be the way forward (Mermel et al., 2019). The MM approach establishes the foundation for screening, prevention, and guideline establishment to counter potential infections from emerging and spreading (Chen et al., 2020). Maintaining real-time information on the pandemic should prevail. Nurses being the stewards of the response to the pandemic, should be extensively empowered (White, 2017). The initiatives center on the expansion of competence of the nurses. Information intelligence can lead to a successful transformation of theory into practice within the MM technique.




Chen, J., Zhu, H., Horby, P. W., Wang, Q., Zhou, J., Jiang, H., … & Yu, H. (2020). Specificity, kinetics and longevity of antibody responses to avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans. Journal of Infection80(3), 310-319.

Laskar, A. M., Deepashree, R., Bhat, P., Pottakkat, B., Narayan, S., Sastry, A. S., & Sneha, R. (2018). A multimodal intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in a tertiary care center. American journal of infection control46(7), 775-780.

Liu, Z., Qiu, T., Pei, L., Zhang, Y., Xu, L., Cui, Y., … & Huang, Y. (2020). Two-week multimodal prehabilitation program improves perioperative functional capability in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia131(3), 840-849.

Mermel, L. A., Jefferson, J. A., Smit, M. A., & Auld, D. B. (2019). Prevention of hospital-acquired respiratory viral infections: assessment of a multimodal intervention program. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology40(3), 362-364.

White, E. (2017). A comparison of nursing education and workforce planning initiatives in the United States and England. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice18(4), 173-185.



Coronavirus Pandemic

One specific intervention addressing the chosen Pandemic and the goal of the intervention

The solution for control of the pandemic may lie in controlling the spread and tracking the disease pattern. The proposed intervention for the pandemic is an increase in the sensitization on proper sanitation to reduce the spread of the disease. Education and awareness are some of the strongest tools that governments and organizations can use to control the spread of the disease. An enhanced vaccination drive and education would also be a crucial nursing intervention to slow down the spread of the disease. At higher medical levels, more research should be done to understand the virus mutations and develop more effective vaccines against all variants of the virus.

Budget and cost effectiveness measures

Awareness and mass education would cost about $1000 for nurse training and stationery for the same purpose. Mass education will also be crucial and cost around $500 for a single television channel and an associated radio. The program’s benefits outweigh the cost, and it can therefore be classified as cost-effective. The vaccination drive would cost $500 in nurse fees while the federal government would provide the vaccines for free. Therefore, the total estimated cost for the initiative runs at $2000 and an additional contingency budget of $1500.

 Methods for evaluation of intervention

The evaluation of the intervention measures will be done by comparison of infection rates pre-and post-intervention. Questionnaires will also be used to express their concerns and get their feedback. Compliance and attitudes of the medical staff will also be assessed, and questionnaires will also be administered to them to get their feedback. The questionnaires will also test the understanding of nurses and the public on the coronavirus education and awareness.

Findings in the literature as well as the data set utilized.

The coronavirus pandemic continues to ravage nations and comes in waves. Every nation needs to be prepared for the pandemic waves to reduce the fatality ratios among the infected. The most important card to be played by nations is to integrate spread control measures to slow down and eventually stop the spread of the disease. The proposed interventions in this article may be adopted at community levels to reduce the spread of the disease. Gaining control of the pandemic may be instrumental in reviving the affected sectors of the economy and in the betterment of the public health situation

 Less understanding of the coronavirus pandemic among populations becomes a challenge as the government introduces mitigation measures. This proves to be a problem for the government trying to uphold the measures put in place when the public fails to understand the rationale of the measures. It is then identified that creating awareness and sharing health protocols with the public is crucial (Dehghani et al., 2022).

The reduction in infection rates, attributed to the wearing of masks, vaccination, and social distancing, have provided hope that the pandemic can be contained. However, the emergence of new variants presents a challenge in ending the pandemic, which necessitates more research to develop more effective vaccines for all virus variations. Another challenge in the administration of vaccines is vaccination hesitancy. This challenge can be addressed better by education and proper awareness to change individuals’ mindsets about vaccines and accept them (Haque & Pant, 2022).




Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2022). Rates of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths by Vaccination Status. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#rates-by-vaccine-status (Links to an external site.)

De Nadai, M., Roomp, K., Lepri, B., & Oliver, N. (2022). The impact of control and mitigation strategies during the second wave of coronavirus infections in Spain and Italy. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-13.

Dehghani, M. H., Roy, S., & Karri, R. R. (2022). Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in environmental engineering perspective. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-3.

Haque, A., & Pant, A. B. (2022). Mitigating Covid-19 in the face of emerging virus variants, breakthrough infections and vaccine hesitancy. Journal of autoimmunity, 102792.

Hiscott, J., Alexandridi, M., Muscolini, M., Tassone, E., Palermo, E., Soultsioti, M., & Zevini, A. (2020). The global impact of the coronavirus pandemic. Cytokine & growth factor reviews, 53, 1-9.

Onyema, E. M., Eucheria, N. C., Obafemi, F. A., Sen, S., Atonye, F. G., Sharma, A., & Alsayed, A. O. (2020). Impact of Coronavirus pandemic on education. Journal of Education and Practice, 11(13), 108-121.

World health organization [WHO] (2022). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

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