Ppt Presentation INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS 1 INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS 2 Table of Contents U.S economic reforms from a historical perspective. 3 U.S effe



Table of Contents
U.S economic reforms from a historical perspective. 3
U.S effe

Click here to Order a Custom answer to this Question from our writers. It’s fast and plagiarism-free.



Table of Contents
U.S economic reforms from a historical perspective. 3
U.S effect of the 2007/2008 fiscal crisis. 4
California’s comparative advantage 6
U.S future economic state 7
References 10

U.S economic reforms from a historical perspective.

There are many different aspects of US economic history that can be studied, including the colonial period through the present day. On the one hand, the focus is on economic performance, productivity, and how these factors have been influenced by new technologies, changes in sector size, legislation, and government policies.
Subsistence farming was the primary mode of production in the colonial economy of what would later become the United States. As well as making their own food, farmers also produced handicrafts and sold them for a profit, particularly gold.
Market economies were built on local use of natural resources like mining and agricultural products like gristmills and sawmills, as well as exports of agricultural goods. Raw and processed feed grains (wheat, Indian corn, rice, bread, and flour) and tobacco were the most important agricultural exports. Chesapeake Bay region tobacco and South Carolina rice were key crops. Another important export was fish that had been dried and salted.
It was a time of transition toward industrialization, notably in the Northeast, when cotton textiles and shoes were manufactured (Hareven, 2018). The West’s population (usually referring to the states of Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Missouri, as well as parts of Missouri’s neighboring states) expanded quickly throughout this time period. There was a significant machine tool industry in Cincinnati, Ohio, in the West, which mostly produced grain and pork. Plantation agriculture, especially cotton, tobacco, and sugar, was the backbone of the South’s economy.
As transportation routes became more accessible, the market economy and factory system took hold. Early in the century, steamboats and railroads were widely used to aid westward expansion. After its invention in 1844, the telegraph had gained general acceptance by the mid-1850s. Machining became an important industry thanks to the development of the machine tool sector. Sewing machines were first produced in the early 1900s. Mechanization took hold in the shoe business. The introduction of horse-drawn reapers considerably improved farming production.
After the Civil War, the usage of steam engines in industrial grew, and steam power eventually overtook waterpower. Wood was mostly phased out in favor of coal as a primary source of energy. A new industrial economy was born with the development of railroads, telegraphs, and machinery, and factories. Between 1841 and 1856, the United States saw its longest run of uninterrupted economic growth. Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, there was a surge in transportation-goods investment, which fueled this growth,” a 2017 study found.
The graph displays the real GDP growth rate in the United States from 2016 to 2020, with forecasts going all the way to 2026. As of 2019, the United States real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.29 percent over 2018.

U.S effect of the 2007/2008 fiscal crisis.

Due to fears that a significant drop in home prices would lead to a rise in mortgage defaults and increased losses for investors in these instruments, the Federal Housing Finance Agency House Price Index was heavily weighted following the peaking of home prices at the beginning of 2007. The rise in home prices was unprecedented in scope and breadth, and the subsequent nationwide declines in home prices are almost unheard of in US history. Average U.S. home values fell more than a fifth between 2007 and 2011, according to a new analysis. Traders on the financial markets were caught off guard as housing prices began to plummet, and this miscalculation sparked the financial crisis of 2007-2008.
Both the financial crisis and the wider economic collapse were fueled by the property market (Almeida, 2020). 2006 was a record year for home purchases and building jobs in the residential sector.
There has been a recession since December 2007, according to NBER. Changed Words Structural Changes Longest Unchanged Word which was the peak of the entire economy. As financial market stress reached its peak in the fall of 2008, economic activity began to decline but increased significantly in the spring of 2009. From peak to trough, GDP in the United States fell by 4.3 percent, making this recession the deepest since the Second World War. The longest duration of time was also 18 months.
During the financial crisis of 2008, the Federal Reserve cut the interest rate on Fed funds from 4.5 percent to 2 percent. It also started a massive asset purchase program (LSAP), which purchased mortgage-backed securities and longer-term Treasury debt.
A determination to avoid a repeat of what happened in the financial markets prompted revisions to the financial sector’s oversight and regulation once the turbulence had calmed. Many interventions have been proposed or implemented in an effort to prevent financial distress. The amount of capital required by traditional banks has increased significantly, with higher increases for organizations deemed to be “systemically vital” (Bank for International Settlements 2011a; 2011b). It will be the first time that banks’ maturity transformations will be legally limited by liquidity rules (Bank for International Settlements 2013). When conditions deteriorate, regulators and banks alike will benefit from regular stress testing, which can help both parties better appreciate the dangers they face.

California’s comparative advantage

Other parts of the world benefit from California’s innovation-based industry clusters’ strength and depth. Biotech, sophisticated manufacturing, food processing, and information technology are just a few of the industries in which California’s regions consistently rank among the best in the country.
High-wage jobs and small businesses are supported by manufacturing in California, which contributes to the state’s worldwide supply chain. It is estimated by the Milken Institute that for every new job in manufacturing, 2.5 new employment is produced in other sectors. The multiplier impact is 16 to one in the electronic computer manufacturing industry, for example.
In 2011, California exported $159 billion worth of manufactured goods, making it the state’s largest export-intensive industry. Overall, California’s manufactured exports account for 9.4% of the state’s GDP, and computers and electronic products account for 29.3% of the state’s overall exports. More than a fifth (21.9 percent) of California’s manufacturing workforce is reliant on exports for their livelihood (Cornaggia, 2019).
California’s manufacturing industry faced a number of challenges prior to the current economic downturn, To ensure cost-effective efficiency in the face of weaker health and pay requirements emerging from expanding overseas markets, including securing a competent workforce for manufacturing’s changing demands. 613,000 jobs were lost in California’s industrial sector between 2001 and 2011.
California is an extremely fertile state. Avocados and corn can be produced at a rate of 6 and 10 units per acre, respectively, by farmers. They own a total of five plots of land. In the Canadian prairies, avocados and corn can be grown at a rate of one and five units per acre, respectively. 15 plots of land are on offer. Assume that the marketplaces in both nations are completely competitive.
A whopping 80% of the world’s almonds come from California, as does a whopping 999% of the country’s supply. As a result, not only do farmers benefit, but the state of California as a whole does as well, as employment is created, local communities are supported, and the economy of the state is strengthened.
It is estimated that the almond industry contributes more than 110,000 employment to the state’s economy, according to a report by the University of California’s Agricultural Issues Center (AIC). More than 102,500 of those jobs are in California’s Central Valley, where almonds are farmed and unemployment has long been a problem. As a comparison, Google employs about the same number of workers in the United States.
More than $19.6 billion in gross revenue is generated across all industries in California as a result of these jobs, adding an additional $9.2 billion to the state’s entire GDP. Farmers and processors of almonds in California serve on local boards and contribute financially to schools, companies, civic and religious organizations in their areas. More than 96% of almond farmers and processors volunteer their time to help the well-being of their local communities.

U.S future economic state

More than 11.9 million jobs are expected to be created between 2020 and 2030, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics has predicted. In addition to the COVID-19 pandemic and its attendant recession, this increase reflects a 0.7 percent annual growth rate, which is greater than recently projected cycles and accounts for the rebound from low base-year employment for 2020. Job growth in the healthcare and social assistance industry is expected to outpace that in the leisure and hospitality sector, mostly due to recovery growth. The fastest job growth is expected in the healthcare support professions.
From February to April 2020, the COVID-19 epidemic caused an economic slowdown that resulted in significant and immediate decreases in output and employment. To account for lower 2020 base-year values and consequently faster employment growth, 2020 serves as the base year for the 2020–30 estimates. Many industries are projected to have cyclical recoveries in the early part of the predicted decade as output and employment revert to their long-term growth trends. Occupations associated with industries where employment declined in 2020 are expected to rise at a much faster rate than the overall economy as a whole.
As a result of the pandemic’s impact on the economy, some industries and vocations are expected to undergo long-term structural demand shifts result of these economic changes. As an example, telework computing infrastructure and IT security are predicted to drive long-term demand for various computer-related vocations (Sloan, 2018). Because of the pandemic’s long-term purchasing patterns, brick-and-mortar retail is expected to lose jobs to e-commerce, which will aggravate the long-term downturn in retail.
As a rule, the rapid growth rates in this prediction set can be divided into three categories: cyclically driven, long-term structurally driven, or the combination of both. Consumer spending is expected to be the primary driver of economic growth in the coming year. However, commercial investment and, more importantly, a recovery in private inventories are also expected to help. As the infrastructure package funds begin to be used, the government’s spending will also increase.


Almeida, V. (2020). Income inequality and redistribution in the aftermath of the 2007–2008 crisis: the US case. National Tax Journal, 73(1), 77-114.
Cornaggia, J., & Li, J. Y. (2019). The value of access to finance: Evidence from M&As. Journal of Financial Economics, 131(1), 232-250.
Hareven, T. K. (2018). Families, history, and social change: Life-course and cross-cultural perspectives. Routledge.
Sloan, M., Premkumar, A., & Sheth, N. P. (2018). Projected volume of primary total joint arthroplasty in the US, 2014 to 2030. JBJS, 100(17), 1455-1460.

Place your order now for a similar assignment and have exceptional work written by one of our experts, guaranteeing you an A result.

Need an Essay Written?

This sample is available to anyone. If you want a unique paper order it from one of our professional writers.

Get help with your academic paper right away

Quality & Timely Delivery

Free Editing & Plagiarism Check

Security, Privacy & Confidentiality