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Breast cancer in menopausal patients

Stages of change model

The stages of change model puts forward the changes that people undergo while attempting to change a particular behaviour or, in this case, receiving medical care for an illness. The model is ideal for the case since coming to terms with the fact that one has breast cancer and at the same time is in their menopause can be daunting. Some people take a lot of time to come to terms with the reality of their condition. In the pre-contemplation stage, one is in denial of the reality of their health status, and they are reluctant to take the necessary steps to seek medical treatment. It takes being pushed by family members for them to rethink their decision. With time they get to the contemplation stage and willingly think about their condition. 

In the case of breast cancer, people become more susceptible with age, which explains why women in their menopause are likely to have the condition. With readiness totake action, the patient gets to the preparation stage and now is seeking allthe information needed to start treatment (Beretich, 2020). Such as the stage of thecondition, the treatment methods such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy andconsequently the changes that one may go through and the amount of support theywill need from their loved ones. Eventually, they get to the termination stage,where there is no going back, and the patient has to see the treatment plan tothe end.

The primary strengths of the model are that it’s easy to understand and even adopt for most people. Its somewhat similar to the stages of grief in that it clearly shows that coming to terms with certain life changes is not easy and may take more time, support and resources to get one to where they need to be. The fact that the model has stages makes it simpler for one to understand where they are, how well they are progressing, and what they need to change if the need arises.

The health belief model

The primary reason why the health belief model does not apply to the menopausal patient with breast cancer is that the model mainly deals with a person’s belief about a threat brought about by an illness plus a belief in the effectiveness of adopting a certain health behaviour, which, in this case, is inapplicable since we are dealing with an illness whose chances of occurring increase with age and is not necessarily connected to one’s belief and possibly ignorance of the health behaviour one needs to adopt (Bujawati et al., 2021). The model would work in cases where one’s religious beliefs prevent them from seeking the recommended medical action. Instead, they hold the irrational belief that their god will heal them. In other cases, people believe that they are incapable of contracting certain diseases; thus, they remain oblivious that it’s a myth and that they need to get screened for certain diseases such as cancer regularly.  

The reason for the conclusion about the inability of the model to work in the case at hand is because, for one, the model works strictly with belief systems. In this case, it’s about getting the patient to a place where they are not oblivious to the truth right in front of their eyes, which with the right motivation and time, they come to terms with and get to a place they no longer want to go back to that place of denial.

Additionally, the model does not consider certain habitual behaviours, such as smoking, that may take lots of time, support and decision making for one to make the necessary changes. The other crucial challenge of the model is that it assumesthat there is symmetrical access to information for everyone, which is quitethe contrary since many factors are at play when it comes to access toinformation. Such factors range from geographical location, level ofilliteracy, among others.


Beretich, K. N. (2020).Stages of change in dietetics practise(Doctoraldissertation).

Bujawati, E., Ramdan, R., Mallapiang, F., & Suyuti, S.(2021). Health Belief Model on women’s cancerrecovery (a phenomenological study on cancer survivors).GacetaSanitaria,35, S9-S11.


Claudia Calderin

2 hours ago, at 6:24 PM



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Health is defined by the World Health Organization as a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing. Factors that affect health can be divided into many categories. After studying the models assigned, I have chosen the Health Believe Model to apply it to my main topic from week 1 which is Diabetes. There are various individual behavioral elements that increase the risk of becoming diabetic. They include, among others, unhealthy eating, lack of exercise, failure to take medication, and lack of problem-solving skills. The Health Believe Model allows individuals to realize that they can contract a given health condition if they fail to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Patients will be able to acknowledge the consequences of contracting diabetes. As a result, they will realize that it is important to go to medical screenings. This model aims to help those at risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes to significantly reduce the chances of contracting. This model will allow patients on adhering to the instructions provided to help avoid or mitigate effects of diabetes has its consequences.


Ecological Model will not be beneficial as a health promotion model to my main topic. The point of this model is to help improve health behaviors and health education through the use of what is known as the “ecological perspective”. This model explains that there is more to health promotion than eating right or basic health practice. Behavior change is an effective way of controlling most health conditions, such as diabetes. The health belief model allows individuals to understand that diabetes can be prevented through the adoption of appropriate interventions.






Carpenter, C. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of health belief model variables in predicting behavior. Health Communication, 25(8), 661-669.

Cash, J. (2014). Family practice guidelines (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B., & Viswanath, K. (2008). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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