Speech Draft CHILD – UNDER COVID-19 END HUNGER AND ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY 2 Child – Under Covid 19 End Hunger and achieve food securi


Child – Under Covid 19 End Hunger and achieve food securi

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Child – Under Covid 19 End Hunger and achieve food security
Research Process & Methodology

November 18, 2021


Child hunger and food insecurity are major problems affecting many countries across the world particularly in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. Food security is characterized as the capacity to have social, physical, and monetary admittance to protected, adequate, and nutritious food among all individuals and the capacity to meet their dietary and inclinations for a solid life. In accomplishing the objective of the paper, the paper inspects different components of the two procedures: supplemental nourishment program helps and transforming the business sectors and how they can add to the disposal of the youngster hunger issue in the general public. In all the previous exploration, there has been a nitty-gritty clarification on the effect of SNAP procedure in the United States and the job of market changes in upgrading the reasonableness of items. Be that as it may, there is least examination specifying manners by which the systems can be applied in low-pay nations whose pervasiveness of kid yearning and food weakness is higher. The review will concentrate on deciding how end-kid appetite and food security can be accomplished using SNAP and transforming the market under Covid-19.

Key Words
: Food security, child hunger, market reforms.

Table of Content
Table of Contents
1 Introduction 4
1.1 Background 4
1.2 Problem Definition 5
1.2.1 Formal Problem Statement 6
1.3 Purpose of Study 7
1.4 Research Question 7
1.5 Theoretical Framework 8
2 Literature Review 10
2.1. Food insecurity and child hunger in Covid-19 10
2.1.1. The already food insecurity problem before the pandemic 10
2.1.2. Food price level in the global market 11
2.1.3. Food insecurity 12
2.1.4. Child hunger 13
2.1.5. Covid-19 and child hunger 14
2.1.6. Impact of the pandemic 15
2.1.7. The global pandemic and economic conditions causing food insecurity 17
2.2. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) 19
2.3. Market reforms 20
2.4. Establishing research gap 21
3 Research Methodology 21
References 22

1 Introduction

1.1 Background
Child hunger has been one of the major health problems in various parts of the world. With the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the problem increased severity as more members of the society suffered the blow. Some of the international organizations such as the United Nations raising concerns over the need to enhance collaborative approaches in dealing with the issue. Food security is defined as the ability to have social, physical, and economic access to safe, sufficient, and nutritious food among all people and the ability to meet their dietary and preferences for a healthy life (Poole et al, 2021). With some countries having poor economic growth and economic sustainability, child hunger remains a dominant issue. Child hunger not only affects the physical health and development of the child but also the social and intellectual capacities (Jones et al, 2018). Even short-term food insecurity can lead to long-term developmental, psychological, physical, and emotional damage. Compared with children from high-income families, children in low-income families have a higher risk of poorer health and academic performance, but undernutrition may be further disadvantaged (Dunn,2020). And during the Covid 19, with school closures, low-income families with children who depend on school meals face a higher risk of hunger (Fang, 2021).
“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (Declaration, R., 1996). It is necessary to pay attention to some of the factors that cause child hunger when we try to be understanding the response to child hunger and the realization of food security and necessary interventions. Once the root cause of a problem is identified, it becomes easier to determine interventions to address the problem completely. Also, it is important to determine the stakeholders involved in the food security program and the roles each stakeholder should play in eliminating the child hunger problem. This provides a comprehensive analysis that can be used in ensuring children across the world have access to nutritious food and all dietary needs necessary for a healthy life are provided for (Qaim, 2020).

1.2 Problem Definition
There has been a problem in the need to eliminate food insecurity and child hunger contributed by the pandemic. Child hunger and food insecurity has been a global problem affecting many countries even before the emergence of Covid-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic increased the severity of the problem. This has risen the need to develop policies that address the child hunger and food insecurity problem.
Based on statistics developed from global research conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 5.6 million children who are at the age of five die out of hunger annually with a death frequency of approximately 15,000 on the daily basis. The statistics range across continents with Africa leading with a prevalence of 76.5 per 1000 live births while in Europe, the prevalence stands at 9.6 per 1000 live births (Mercy Corps, 2020). Further statistics show that more than 3.1 million children death cases are reported annually as the result of undernutrition (Micha, 2020). Families with children are more likely to lack food security than families without children (Gundersen, 2015). There is a major impact of undernutrition on children, particularly on the immune system. In some cases, child death cases are found to have undernutrition as an underlying factor (Haque et al, 2017). Most research examining overall food insecurity and its impact on health outcomes has focused on children (Gundersen, 2015). For example, children in food insecure family are 2-3 times more likely to develop anemia compared with children in food safe family (Eicher-Miller, 2019). Compared with children who live in the food safety family, the food intake of the meat food group for children who cannot meet food safety is restricted. Therefore, food-insecure children and adolescents may not get the iron needed for normal growth and development (Matheson, 2002). According to statistics provided by the United Nations, there were an increase in the average number of families that were faced by food shortage.
For instance, a child may be affected severely by a disease such as pneumonia or malaria but upon evaluation, the medical professionals realize the child did not have enough nutritious food to counter the infection. Based on the statistics provided, it is evident that child hunger is a major problem that needs immediate interventions to reduce the prevalence of issue (Wetherill et al, 2021). There are certain factors that are attributed to the rise of child hunger. Among the factors include conflict, poverty, seasonal changes, natural disaster, and gender inequality. With such contributing factors, there is a need to implement strategies that help in eliminating the factors. There are two possible alternatives that can be used: supplemental nutrition program assistance and reforming the markets (Drucker et al, 2019).

1.2.1 Formal Problem Statement
There has been an increased prevalence of child hunger and food insecurity in the world during the Covid-19 pandemic. This is contributed by the decrease in income as more jobs were lost following the decline in production. Also, with the reduced supply in the global economy, the price level of food commodities making it impossible for majority of households to afford. As a result, the global economic growth process was affected which led to stagnation as well as decline in development projects. Therefore, there is a need to determine ways to counter the increasing adverse impact of food insecurity and child hunger under Covid-19 through instituting effective mitigation strategies.

1.3 Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to determine the role of supplemental nutrition assistance programs and reforming markets in ending child hunger and attaining food security during Covid-19. In attaining the goal of the paper, the paper examines various elements of the two strategies: supplemental nutrition program assistance and reforming the markets and how they can contribute to the elimination of the child-hunger problem in society. In evaluating the applicability of the strategies, the paper will assess various factors that cause food insecurity and the level of viability of each of the strategies in eliminating or minimizing the impact of each of the factors. The higher the level of correlation between the strategy and the contributory factor, the higher the level of viability in applying the strategy to attain food security and ending child hunger (Shloim et al, 2018).

1.4 Research Question
There has been a problem in the need to eliminate food insecurity and child hunger contributed by the pandemic. Child hunger and food insecurity has been a global problem affecting many countries even before the emergence of Covid-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic increased the severity of the problem. This has risen the need to develop policies that address the child hunger and food insecurity problem. In conducting a study to investigate the problem, the following research questions are used.
What is the impact of supplemental nutrition programs in ending child hunger and attaining food security during Covid-19?
What is the effect of market reforms in ending child hunger and attaining food security?

1.5 Theoretical Framework
In the study, there are both well-defined independent variables and dependent variables. The independent variables in the study are two: supplemental nutrition program and market reforms. The dependent variables include child hunger and food security during covid-19.
In determining the relationship between the two as the foundation to establishing the hypothesis, an analysis of each of the independent variables is done to determine the contributing factors of components of each of the variables. In supplemental nutrition program, an analysis is conducted to determine the issues that contribute to its success. This is also described at length in the literature part. One of the factors is financial stability of a country. This is an important aspect as it determines the ability of the country concerned to offer required funds to support the supplemental nutrition program. In developed countries such as the United States where the program has been enrolled successfully, there is financial stability (Idris, 2021). However, in some countries facing child hunger and food insecurity as a result of Covid-19, there is low financial stability. Therefore, there is a need to determine what will be the effect of implementing the program in such countries. This is only possible by determining the extent of the relationship between financial stability and the success of a supplemental nutrition program in combating child hunger and food insecurity. The second element to investigate is presence of well-developed institutions in the country where the supplemental food program is applied. In this case, the institutions may either be world-wide non-profit or philanthropist organizations or even national organizations. By establishing the role of such organizations, it would be easier to develop an effective strategy that meets the needs of the market.
Market reforms as the second independent variable is investigated on basis of increased competition as a strategy to stimulate supply and reduction in pricing making food products more affordable. The element considered is cost of production where the focus is reduction in cost of production to encourage more producers into supplying products to the market. The third factor is dynamic efficiency where the major focus is enhancing production through the use of technology and innovation (Varshney et al, 2020).

Supplemental nutritional program

· Financial stability

· Market reforms

Child hunger


Food insecurity

In Covid-19

Market reforms

· Increase in competition

· Reduced cost of production

· Dynamic efficiency

The theory or hypothesis tested based on the concepts outlined above is:

Null hypothesis: Supplemental nutritional program and market reforms cannot be used in ending child hunger and food insecurity in Covid-19.

Alternate Hypothesis:
Supplemental nutritional program and market reforms cannot be used in ending child hunger and food insecurity in Covid-19.

2 Literature Review
This section provides a detailed analysis on child hunger and food insecurity and a detailed description of supplemental nutrition program and market reforms. In attaining the goal, various peer-review articles and statistic reports are analyzed to determine research gap filled by the research. The aim of the section is determining the research gap based on what other scholars have found in relation to child hunger and food insecurity under Covid-19. In attaining the goal, the paper outlines research reports from various sources.

2.1. Food insecurity and child hunger in Covid-19

Food insecurity refers to the lack of sufficient food for individual or lack of access to food. This contributes to child hunger which is described as lack of access to quality food needed for the growth and development of children.

2.1.1. The already food insecurity problem before the pandemic
In 2019, there are around 60 million more people who are undernourished than there were in 2014. Undernutrition is responsible for approximately half of all fatalities in children under the age of five, and stunting and wasting have an impact on children all around the world. As reported by the World Health Organization, around 144 million children under the age of five were stunted worldwide in 2019. By the end of 2020, an additional 6.7 million children would have been wasted as a result of the epidemic, contributing to an increase in child hunger. According to the World Bank, 19 percent of the population in Africa is undernourished, making it the continent with the greatest proportion of undernourished individuals in the world. Since 2000, the number of stunted children has increased only in Africa, where it has remained stable. More than 70% of the world’s chronically hungry individuals are women and girls, according to the World Food Programme. As a result of food restriction, people may cut back on their meal consumption and resort to maladaptive coping mechanisms such as early and forced marriages, as well as transactional sexual encounters with children (Reuter, 2021).
Violence and insecurity have contributed to the famine of 77 million people in 22 countries this year, making war the leading cause of severe hunger in this region. Seventy percent of the world’s top 20 countries are threatened by food insecurity in unstable or conflict-affected regions. The COVID-19 meeting in Nairobi this year predicted a rise in extreme food insecurity in West and Central Africa as a result of violence. COVID-19, on the other hand, has the potential to exacerbate food insecurity in the region by a factor of more than one-third, according to the World Food Programme. As a result of the severe weather events that occurred in 2019, an estimated 34 million people in 25 countries, predominantly in Africa, were forced to live in food insecurity. In 2019, economic shocks forced 24 million individuals in eight countries to live in food insecurity as a result of their circumstances. Agricultural insecurity will only intensify if we don’t solve our flawed global food systems as soon as possible. The depletion and exhaustion of soil resources is a global issue. The epidemic has exacerbated the issue, with food insecurity becoming a major concern in a number of countries around the world as a result of the outbreak (Akseer et al, 2021).

2.1.2. Food price level in the global market
Food security in any economy is contributed significantly by the price levels of food commodities in the economy. This is because prices charged on the products determine the affordability of the commodity at the market. When the prices of food products are lower, the demand is high as it matches the purchasing power of the majority. This is characterized by food security as food is easily and evenly distributed to the people. A shift in price levels to a higher level, there is a decline in the number of people who can afford the food products at the higher prices. This is characterized by an increase in food insecurity as majority of the customers no longer afford the products. This is evident through statistics report provided by the United Nations on prevalence of food insecurity. There was a significant change in price levels of food commodities with the emergence of the pandemic in 2020 (Mishra & Rampal, 2020). For most countries which had a stable Agricultural Commodity Price Index during the pre-pandemic, they experienced a significant shift into instable price index following the emergence of the pandemic. The Agricultural Commodity Price Index settled in the second from last quarter of 2021 yet stays 25 percent higher than a year prior. In September, maize and wheat costs were 36 percent and 6 percent over their January 2020 levels, while rice is 11 percent underneath pre-pandemic levels. Costs reflect solid interest, alongside climate vulnerabilities, macroeconomic conditions, and COVID-19-related stockpile interruptions, despite the fact that the worldwide creation standpoint for significant grains stays great (Niles et al, 2020).

2.1.3. Food insecurity
There are distinct causes of food insecurity in the wake of covid-19 which starts with the impact on affordability for food products, a decline in income among other factors contributed to the decline the research was conducted in different countries across the world to determine the prevalence of the problem. There are a variety of countries experiencing food shortage as a result of disruption in inventory system at the retail level due to the effects of COVID-19 social separating measures, cash debasements, and different elements. The rate of food insecurity reflects the prevalence of child hunger as children are the major part of any population (Polsky & Gilmour, 2020). This is contributed by poor financial planning on basic services such as provision of opportunity for the citizens to afford food. Taking an approximate figure at the center of the projected reach which is approximately 768 million, around 118 million additional individuals were confronting persistent appetite in 2020 than in 2019. Utilizing an alternate pointer that tracks all year admittance to satisfactory food, almost 2.37 billion individuals or 30 percent of the worldwide population needed admittance to sufficient food in 2020. This represents an increase of 320 million in only one year (Huizar et al, 2021).

2.1.4. Child hunger
World Bank has been in the forefront in determining the prevalence of social problems in the community. It has been focused at ensuring the global society does not experience factors that disrupt peaceful coexistence among which include food insecurity (Dun et al, 2020). In efforts to determine the prevalence of food insecurity under Covid-19, the World Bank piloted several countries across the World to determine the impact of child hunger. The first study was conducted to determine the impact of Covid-19 on food insecurity after which the prevalence of child hunger was determine (Elsahoryi et al, 2020). As the world’s most developed nations immunize their citizens and begin to emerge from lockdowns, billions of kids all throughout the world are encountering the adverse effect of COVID-19: such as of experiencing extreme appetite. Indeed, even before the pandemic, one youngster in three youngers than five was malnourished. The Covid-19 pandemic has led to difficulties and tensions onto currently stressed wellbeing frameworks, delicate economies, food frameworks and occupations. The pandemic has expanded the danger of long for a large number of kids around the world, here and there you might not have anticipated (Polsky & Gilmour, 2020). With the rise and the spread of the pandemic, a huge number of occupations that have been lost because of limitations like isolations, travel limitations, absence of the travel industry, and other lockdown estimates that prevent organizations from exchanging. Be that as it may, it’s more terrible in emerging nations, with misfortunes of pay because of COVID-19 expected to reach more than $220 billion in less fortunate nations (Hamadani et al, 2020). This implying that a huge number of guardians will not have the option to give food to their kids, for reasons completely outside their ability to control. With an expected 55% of the worldwide populace having no admittance to social assurance like state benefits, these misfortunes will be more intense for the least fortunate and most weak networks (Leddy et al, 2020).

2.1.5. Covid-19 and child hunger
Public health rules to limit the spread of the COVID-19 virus have relied extensively on stay-at-home orders this year, but these restrictions inflict a significant strain on families and individuals as a result of their strictness. According to a new study, lockdowns have a bad influence on people’s mental health, diet, and relationships with their family members. Experts from the Durham Global Health Institute and some of our partners convened on Wednesday, February 3, to discuss how people in Durham, North Carolina, and other US communities are dealing with the pandemic’s difficulties (Sohel et al, 2021).
Amber Rieder, a global mental health postdoctoral associate at the Duke Global Health Institute and the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences who has been conducting research on the topic under the supervision of Eve Puffer, shared preliminary findings on the mental health of families in the United States South. In the online poll, which was provided to parents in 18 southern United States, more than 1,800 children, ranging in age from 3 to 16, took part. During the first six months of the pandemic, they participated in online surveys to provide feedback. Their preliminary investigation, according to Rieder, shows that they have made three key discoveries (Dempsey & Pautz, 2021). According to preliminary research, Parents suffer from major mental health concerns. Parents report mild depression symptoms in more than half of cases, with a third reporting more severe symptoms that are more consistent with clinical severity. The researchers were taken aback when they discovered that anxiety symptoms were present in 33 percent of the families tested. The second finding shows that parents are having difficulty guiding their children’s social, emotional, and behavioral development in the right direction. Since the outbreak of the pandemic began, the majority of parents have claimed that their children’s mental health has deteriorated. The final conclusion demonstrates that the relationships between parents and their partners as well as their children are deteriorating.
As a result of the closure of schools or the operation of “remote learning” centers, children have been deprived of access to nutritious breakfasts and lunches at school. The practice of sending children to school for lunch, where they could meet the majority of their daily calorie and nutritional requirements, was widespread among low-income households. Schools’ inventive efforts to provide meal pick-up sites, meal drop-off locations on school buses, and USDA waivers for free lunches for children resulted in 1.15 billion school meals being missed during a nine-week period in the spring of 2020, according to research (Crush et al, n.d.).

2.1.6. Impact of the pandemic
Coronavirus has additionally affected inventory chains, which has a thump on impact on food costs, making dinners excessively expensive for a large number of individuals. The expense of an essential food container expanded by over 10 percent in 20 nations in the months after the beginning of the pandemic in 2020. Inventory network disturbance has likewise created setbacks for the cultivating season, and limitations on development for work have come about in less than ideal harvests across numerous nations and areas. Even before the Covid-19 pandemic stroke in different parts of the world, there had been cases of food insecurity with few regions experiencing shortage. Statistics show there has been approximately 820 million people who were experiencing the problem (Lal, 2020). From the population assessed, an approximate of 144 million consisted of children below the age of five years. That is more than one of every five youngsters around the world. The quantity of youngsters who are delegated squandering is presently 47 million. These numbers could develop quickly (Nagata et al, 2021). The Covid-19 pandemic had the potential to elevate the problem by pushing additional 47 million people into great need of food supply. Each rate point drop in worldwide gross domestic product relied upon to result in an extra 0.7 million kids who were affected by the pandemic (Spaull & Van, 2020). The supply chains of food products across the world were impacted by the measures implemented to control the spread of the pandemic across the world. This include the travel restrictions across the world where some countries enacted travel bans particularly through flights. This affected the supply of food commodities as some organization reduced their export services thus curtailing on some food supply (Tester et al, 2020). Ranchers have been covering transient produce or unloading milk because of inventory network interruption and falling shopper interest. Subsequently, there are many individuals living in the metropolitan who are living while battling to get to new foods grown from the ground, dairy, meat and fish (Dunn et al, 2020). The same is experienced with COVID-19 pandemic where it raises the caution on the pressing need to change the world’s food frameworks. Worldwide, environmental change is driven by food frameworks and the planet’s unfurling natural emergency. There is a critical need to reexamine quickly how we produce, process, market, devour our food and discard squander (Fry-Bowers, 2020).

2.1.7. The global pandemic and economic conditions causing food insecurity
According to an Oxfam report, in view of the outbreak and spread of the pandemic, there is an urgent need to address the issue of food insecurity. According to a new Oxfam research published recently, up to 11 people die every minute as a result of hunger and malnutrition. According to the current global COVID-19 fatality rate, around seven individuals per minute are killed by the virus. Food insecurity has reached crisis-level proportions in more than 155 million people around the world, an increase of 20 million people from the previous year, according to the World Food Programme. Due to the fact that their country is at war or in conflict, two out of every three of these people are experiencing food insufficiency. Malnutrition has increased in the poor countries as a result of economic shocks, which have been exacerbated by the coronavirus outbreak and the escalation of natural disasters such as flooding. The outcome of widespread unemployment and significant disruptions in agricultural supply has resulted in a 40 percent increase in global food prices, the largest increase in more than a decade (Inza-Bartolomé & San-Epifanio, 2021). Despite the pandemic, global military spending increased by $51 billion, which is enough to fund six and a half times the United Nations’ estimate of what is needed to protect people from starving to death. 48 million people will be displaced from their homes by the end of 2020, making it the greatest recorded number of internal displacements in history. Afghanistan, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen are among the world’s most impoverished countries when it comes to hunger, and the situation has gotten worse since last year, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (Smith & Wesselbaum, 2020). According to a new research from the International Panel on Climate Change, Ethiopia’s Tigray area is witnessing its worst famine since 2011, when more than a quarter of a million Somalis died (IPC). More than half of Yemen’s population is anticipated to be affected by food insecurity this year, according to forecasts. Food insecurity has increased in India, South Africa, and Brazil, and so has the number of COVID-19 infections, which have also increased in these three nations. More than half of the working population in Brazil was laid off as a result of the government’s efforts to contain the spread of the virus. The number of people living in extreme poverty increased from 4.5 percent to 12.8 percent, and the number of people who were hungry increased by more than 20 percent. Because the federal government only provided assistance to 38 million people, many families were left without a reliable source of income. Because of an upsurge in COVID-19 infections in India, migrant laborers and farmers were particularly heavily struck, since they were compelled to abandon their fields and let their crops go to waste. More than 70% of respondents polled in 12 states said they reduced their dietary intake because they …

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