Strategic Appli In Project Management Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 6 Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 6Assigned Readings:Chapter. 6 Developing

Strategic Appli In Project Management Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 6

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 6Assigned Readings:Chapter. 6 Developing

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Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 6

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 6Assigned Readings:Chapter. 6 Developing a Project PlanInitial Postings: Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. Why bother creating a WBS? Why not go straight to a project network and forget the WBS?

[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student’s own words – do not provide quotes!] [Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review] 

Chapter Six

Developing a Project Plan

6-1

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6–2

Where We Are Now

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Project Management 6e.

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Learning Objectives

Understand the linkage between WBS and the project network

Diagram a project network using AON methods

Calculate early, late, and slack activities times

Identify and understand the importance of managing the critical path

Distinguish free slack from total slack

Demonstrate understanding and application of lags in compressing projects or constraining the start or finish of an activity

6–3

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter Outline

6.1 Developing the Project Network

6.2 From Work Package to Network

6.3 Constructing a Project Network

6.4 Activity-on-Node (AON) Fundamentals

6.5 Network Computation Process

6.6 Using the Forward and Backward Pass

Information

6.7 Level of Detail for Activities

6.8 Practical Considerations

6.9 Extended Network Techniques to Come

Closer to Reality

6–4

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

6–5

Developing the Project Network

The Project Network

A flow chart that graphically depicts the logical sequences, interdependencies, and start and finish times of the project activities along with the longest path(s) through the network—the critical path

Provides the basis for scheduling labor and equipment.

Enhances communication among project participants.

Provides an estimate of the project’s duration.

Provides a basis for budgeting cash flow.

Identifies activities that are critical.

Highlights activities that are “critical” and should not be delayed.

Help managers get and stay on plan.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–6

From WBS/Work Package to Network

FIGURE 6.1

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–7

Constructing a Project Network

Terminology

Activity: an element of the project that requires time but may not require resources

Merge Activity: an activity that has two or more preceding activities on which it depends (more than one dependency arrow flowing into it)

Parallel Activities: Activities that can occur independently and, if desired, not at the same time

A

C

D

B

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Project Management 6e.

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6–8

Constructing a Project Network (cont’d)

Terminology

Path: a sequence of connected, dependent activities

Critical Path:

The longest path through the activity network that allows for the completion of all project-related activities

The shortest expected time in which the entire project can be completed.

Delays on the critical path will delay completion of the entire project.

A

B

D

(Assumes that minimum of A + B > minimum of C in length of times to complete activities.)

C

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–9

Constructing a Project Network (cont’d)

Terminology

Burst Activity: an activity that has more than one activity immediately following it (more than one dependency arrow flowing from it)

Two Approaches

Activity-on-Node (AON)

Uses a node to depict an activity.

Activity-on-Arrow (AOA)

Uses an arrow to depict an activity.

B

D

A

C

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Project Management 6e.

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6–10

Basic Rules to Follow in Developing
Project Networks

Networks typically flow from left to right.

An activity cannot begin until all preceding connected activities are complete.

Arrows indicate precedence and flow and can cross over each other.

Each activity must have a unique identify number.

An activity identification number must be greater than that of any predecessor activities.

Looping is not allowed.

Conditional statements are not allowed.

Use common start and stop nodes.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–11

Activity-on-Node Fundamentals

FIGURE 6.2

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Project Management 6e.

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6–12

Activity-on-Node Fundamentals (cont’d)

FIGURE 6.2 (cont’d)

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Project Management 6e.

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6–13

Network Information

TABLE 6.1

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Project Management 6e.

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6–14

Automated Warehouse—Partial Network

FIGURE 6.3

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Project Management 6e.

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6–15

Automated Warehouse—Complete Network

FIGURE 6.4

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Project Management 6e.

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6–16

Network Computation Process

Forward Pass—Earliest Times

How soon can the activity start? (early start—ES)

How soon can the activity finish? (early finish—EF)

How soon can the project finish? (expected time—TE)

Backward Pass—Latest Times

How late can the activity start? (late start—LS)

How late can the activity finish? (late finish—LF)

Which activities represent the critical path?

How long can the activity be delayed? (slack or float—SL)

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–17

Network Information

TABLE 6.2

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Project Management 6e.

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Activity-on-Node Network

FIGURE 6.5

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Project Management 6e.

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6–19

Activity-on-Node Network Forward Pass

FIGURE 6.6

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Project Management 6e.

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Forward Pass Computation

Add activity times along each path in the network (ES + Duration = EF).

Carry the early finish (EF) to the next activity where it becomes its early start (ES) unless…

The next succeeding activity is a merge activity, in which case the largest early finish (EF) number of all its immediate predecessor activities is selected.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

6-20

6–21

Activity-on-Node Network Backward Pass

FIGURE 6.7

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–22

Backward Pass Computation

Subtract activity times along each path starting with the project end activity (LF – Duration = LS).

Carry the late start (LS) to the next preceding activity where it becomes its late finish (LF) unless…

The next succeeding activity is a burst activity, in which case the smallest late start (LS) number of all its immediate successor activities is selected.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–23

Forward and Backward Passes Completed with Slack Times

FIGURE 6.8

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Project Management 6e.

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6–24

Determining Total Slack (TS)

Total Slack (or Float)

Tells us the amount of time an activity can be delayed and not delayed the project.

Is how long an activity can exceed its early finish date without affecting the project end date or an imposed completion date.

Is simply the difference between the LS and ES (LS – ES = SL) or between LF and EF (LF – EF = SL).

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–25

Determining Free Slack (FS)

Free Slack (or Float)

Is the amount of time an activity can be delayed after the start of a longer parallel activity or activities.

Is how long an activity can exceed its early finish date without affecting early start dates of any successor(s).

Allows flexibility in scheduling scarce resources.

Only activities that occur at the end of a chain of activities, where you have a merge activity, can have free slack.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–26

The Critical Path

Is the network path(s) that has (have) the least slack in common.

Is the longest path through the activity network.

Is the shortest expected time in which the entire project can be completed.

Is important because it impacts completion time.

Is where you put best people on.

Is where you pay extra extension when doing risk assessment.

Is where you look when other managers asking to ‘borrow’ people or equipment.

Is where you look when you don’t have time to monitor all activities.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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Network Sensitivity

The likelihood the original critical path(s) will change once the project is initiated.

A network schedule that has only one critical path and noncritical activities that enjoy significant slack would be labeled ‘insensitive’.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–28

Practical Considerations

Network Logic Errors

Activity Numbering

Use of Computers to Develop Networks (and Gantt Chart)

Calendar Dates

Multiple Starts and Multiple Projects

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Project Management 6e.

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6–29

Network Logic Errors: Illogical Loop

FIGURE 6.9

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Project Management 6e.

6-29

6–30

Automated Warehouse Order Picking System Network

FIGURE 6.10

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Project Management 6e.

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Automated Order Warehouse Picking System Bar Chart

FIGURE 6.11

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Project Management 6e.

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6–32

Extended Network Techniques
to Come Close to Reality

Laddering

Activities are broken into segments so the following activity can begin sooner and not delay the work.

Lags

The minimum amount of time a dependent activity must be delayed to begin or end.

Lengthy activities are broken down to reduce the delay
in the start of successor activities.

Lags can be used to constrain finish-to-start, start-to-start, finish-to-finish, start-to-finish, or combination relationships.

Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Project Management 6e.

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6–33

Example of Laddering Using
Finish-to-Start Relationship

FIGURE 6.12

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Project Management 6e.

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6–34

Use of Lags

FIGURE 6.13

FIGURE 6.14

Finish-to-Start Relationship

Start-to-Start Relationship

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Project Management 6e.

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6–35

Use of Lags (cont’d)

FIGURE 6.15

Use of Lags to Reduce Schedule Detail and Project Duration

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Project Management 6e.

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6–36

New Product Development Process

FIGURE 6.16

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Project Management 6e.

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6–37

Use of Lags (cont’d)

FIGURE 6.17

FIGURE 6.18

FIGURE 6.19

Finish-to-Finish
Relationship

Start-to-Finish
Relationship

Combination
Relationships

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Project Management 6e.

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Network Using Lags

FIGURE 6.20

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Project Management 6e.

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6–39

Hammock Activities

Hammock Activity

Spans over a segment of a project.

Has a duration that is determined after the network plan is drawn.

Is very useful in assigning and controlling indirect project costs.

Is used to aggregate sections of the project to facilitate getting the right level of detail for specific sections of a project.

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Project Management 6e.

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6–40

Hammock Activity Example

FIGURE 6.21

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Project Management 6e.

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Key Terms

Activity

Activity-on-arrow (AOA)

Activity-on-node (AON)

Burst activity

Concurrent engineering

Critical path

Early time

Free slack

Gantt chart

Hammock activity

Lag relationship

Late time

Merge activity

Parallel activity

Sensitivity

Total slack

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Project Management 6e.

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6–42

Shoreline Stadium Case

TABLE 6.3

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Project Management 6e.

6-42

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