Summary Thoughts on Organizational Change ( discussion ) As we have discussed throughout MGT-521, our world continues to change. The COVID-19 pandemic, Sa

Summary Thoughts on Organizational Change ( discussion ) As we have discussed throughout MGT-521, our world continues to change. The COVID-19 pandemic, Sa

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Summary Thoughts on Organizational Change ( discussion ) As we have discussed throughout MGT-521, our world continues to change. The COVID-19 pandemic, Saudi Vision 2030, globalization, technological improvements, and more continue to change the way that organizations operate. The past years have been tough for many organizations, and individuals alike, as small and major changes continue to impact our world. Watch the video from Prosci (2020) about the impact of COVID-19 on organizational change https://youtu.be/Dg5rwFrdMnE. Then, address the three bullet points below:

Provide one example of an organization that successfully implemented a change initiative, thereby allowing the organization to effectively respond to the pandemic. Specifically, detailed information about what changes the organization needed to overcome and how the organization responded. 
Provide one example of an organization that did not properly handle effective changes, which were caused by the pandemic, and detail what went wrong. Explain, also, what you recommend that the organization should have done to better handle the change effort.
Based upon the two organizational examples provided, as a future change agent, what can you learn from these examples? How can learning about the strengths and drawbacks of certain change-related efforts assist you in developing your competencies? 

Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories, which require supporting citations along with two scholarly peer-reviewed references in supporting your answer. Keep in mind that these scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search specific to scholarly references.You are required to reply to at least two peer discussion questions and post answers to this weekly discussion question and/or your instructor’s response to your posting. These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. Normal course dialogue doesn’t fulfill these two peer replies but is expected throughout the course. Answering all course questions is also required. 

 

Required: 

Chapter 11 in Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit

Alfes, K., Shantz, A. D., Bailey, C., Conway, E., Monks, K., & Fu, N. (2019). Perceived human resource system strength and employee reactions toward change: Revisiting human resource’s remit as change agent. Human Resource Management, 58(3), 239-252. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21948

Babayev, A. (2019). Global system analysis and the forecast of the future. Journal of Defense Resources Management, 10(1), 142–151. 

Rydén, P., & El Sawy, O. A. (2019). How managers perceive real-time management: Thinking fast & flow. California Management Review, 61(2), 155-177. Chapter 11:
The Future of Organizations and the Future of Change

Chapter Overview
This chapter presents an expanded summary model of organization change

The future of organizational change and organizational change agents are discussed

Two main routes exist to becoming a change agent: sophisticated technical specialist and strategic generalist routes

Paradoxes related to change management are summarized

Questions are raised about how to orient yourself to organizational change
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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The Change Path Model
Use Diagnostic Models in Chs. 2 and 3 to Better Assessing the Context:
How to Change
What to Change
Identify the need for change
Articulate gap between current situation and desired future state and develop awareness of need for change
Develop and disseminate powerful vision for change

Initial Organization Analysis
Chapters 2 & 3

Awakening
Chapter 4
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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The Change Path Model

Chapter 5
Navigating Change Through Formal Structures and Systems
Mobilization
Chapters 5 through 8
Chapter 6
Navigating Organizational Politics and Culture
Chapter 7
Managing Recipients of Change and Influencing Internal Stakeholders
Chapter 8
Becoming a Master Change Agent
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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4

The Change Path Model

Acceleration
Chapter 9
Institutionalization
Chapter 10

Planning and implementation that engages and empowers others
Action planning tools
Communications planning
Managing the transition and after-action review
Tracking and measuring the change over time to assess progress, make modifications (as needed), and manage risk
Institutionalizing the change through systems
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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5

The Change Path Model
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Awakening
Chapter 4

Acceleration
Chapter 9

Institutionalization
Chapter 10

Mobilization
Chapters 5 through 8

Summary Checklist for Change
Following the Change Management Process:

Chs. 2 and 3: Initial Organizational Analysis

Unfreezing the system

How to change?

What to change?

Understand the complexity, levels of analysis, and time dynamics of change

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Summary Checklist for Change (cont.)
Awakening
Ch.4: Building and Energizing the Need for Change
Understanding the need for change

Articulating the gap between the current mode of operation and the desired future state and developing awareness of the need for change

Developing the powerful vision for change

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Summary Checklist for Change (con’.)
Mobilization
Ch.5: Navigating Change Through Formal Systems and Structures
Assessing their weaknesses and strengths
Leveraging them to gain approval
Leveraging them to gain acceptance
Creating more adaptive systems and structures

Ch.6: Navigating Organizational Politics and Culture
Power dynamics
Perception of change and the change equation
Force field analysis
Stakeholder analysis

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Summary Checklist for Change (cont.)
Mobilization
Ch.7: Managing Recipients of Change and Influencing Internal Stakeholders

Responses to change: +ve, ambivalence, and –ve

Psychological contract

Stages of reaction to change

Impact of personality, experience on change

Managing forward with recipients and internal stakeholders

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Summary Checklist for Change (cont..)
Mobilization

Ch.8: Becoming a Master Change Agent

Factors influencing change agent success

Change leader characteristics

Change leader development

Types of change leaders

External change agents

Effective change teams

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Summary Checklist for Change (cont..)
Acceleration

Ch.9: Action Planning and Implementation

Implementation planning that engages and empowers others

Action planning tools

Communications planning

Managing the transition and after-action review

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Summary Checklist for Change (cont..)
Institutionalization
Ch.10: Measuring Change—Designing Effective Control Systems
Tracking and measuring the change over time to assess progress, make modifications (as needed), and manage risk

Institutionalizing the change through systems

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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The Impact of Organization Trends on Change and Change Agents

Organization Trends

Globalization—be big, or be specialized and excellent, or be acquired, squeezed, or eliminated

Virtual and networked organizations

Loose/tight controls

24/7 response requirements

Cost an quality focus, outsourcing and supply chain rationalization

Crowd sourcing for capital, innovation, and talent

Rise of big data, algorithms, and artificial intelligence

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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The Impact of Organization Trends on Change and Change Agents (cont..)

Organization Trends

Shortening product life cycles and increasing customer expectations

Influential online communities democratizing information access

Increasing focus on integrated customer services and knowledge management

Rapid technological change fundamentally alters industry structures, both in terms of the “what” and the “how”

Changing demographic, social, and cultural environment

Political changes are realigning alliances and the competitive environment

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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The Impact of Organization Trends on Change & Change Agents (cont..)

Impact on Organization Change

Strategic global perspective for both large firms & niche firms

Knowledge of networks & emergent organizational forms

Knowledge & risk management extends to virtual world & big data

Web enabled communication, change related blogs, fast response capacity with a human face

Negotiation & network development, quality, cost leadership and/or customer focus

Creativity, innovation & deployment of resources

Empowerment, teams, & process focus
AI, robotics, new materials, new processes & the IoT

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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The Impact of Organization Trends on Change and Change Agents (cont..)

Impact on Change Agents

Pattern finder

Vision framer

Organizational analyst and aligner

Mobilizer, empowerer, enabler, enactor

Disintegrator and integrator

Corporate gadfly and trend surfer

Generalist capacities: facilitation, influencing, negotiating, and visioning skills; project management expertise

Specialist roles, related to technical expertise needed for specific change initiatives

Capacity to develop and sustain the trust and confidence of multiple stakeholders

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Change Agents Need to Develop
A strong strategic and global perspective

Knowledge of networks and emergent organization forms

Skills in risk management and knowledge management

Understanding of the impact of Web-enabled communication, use of social media in advancing external and internal change and fast response capacity

The ability to communicate globally while maintaining a human face

Perceptiveness of different cultures and norms and how they affect change

The capacity to create, deploy, and work with empowered teams with right mix of skills and abilities, operating with a vision focus

Boundaries come from vision and shared expectations concerning performance and other understood standards and commitments

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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The Business of a Change Specialist
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Mergers and acquisitions
Joint ventures and alliances
Organizational integration specialists
Business stage specialists: growth, maturity, decline, renewal
Large scale or disruptive change specialists
Crisis management specialists
Information technology system integrators
Organization structure specialists
Supply change integrators
Cross-cultural specialists by specific cultures
Inter-organization specialists including government or industry relations
Multi-party negotiation specialists … and the list goes on

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Organizational Change Agent’s Skills

Increasingly complex change assignment of moderate scale
General Change Management Skills
Organizational and environment analysis
Leadership, visioning, negotiation, and other interpersonal communication and influence skills
Project management and implementation skills
Sophisticated knowledge of change leadership and general change management skills
Strategic change assignments of high complexity &/or large scale
Solid technical understanding of more complex technical change being implemented
Technical/Domain-Specific Change Management Skills
Technical knowledge of the specific change being implemented
Knowledge of specific management change tools listed in Table 9.7 and Figure 9.4 of Chapter 9
Solid technical understanding of the simple change being implemented
Entry-level change assignments
Entry-level project management and change management skills
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Change Paradoxes
Managing complexity and ambiguity while maintaining nimbleness and change momentum
Managing the need to be simultaneously centralized decentralized
Managing the need for both incremental (or continuous) and radical (or discontinuous) change
Encouraging participation and involvement but recognizing the need for some degree of central direction and control
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Orienting Yourself to Organizational Change
Gain perspective and insight by recognizing the dynamism and complexity of your organization

Recognize that people’s perceptions are critical. The perception of benefits, costs, and risks determine a person’s reaction to change

Understand that your perception is only one of many

Gather people as you go

Pull people with a powerful change vision. Push people through argument and rewards when you need to, but gaining support through their hearts is often the better way

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Orienting Yourself to Organizational Change (cont..)
Get active in pursuit of your vision. If you do something, you will get responses and learn
Have a plan oriented around your change vision
Do things that are positive. Actions that suck energy are difficult to sustain. Growing your energy as change agent is important
To start meaningful change you need only a few believers. To continue, you need to develop momentum until a critical mass of key participants are on side
There are many routes to your goal. Find the ones with the least resistance that still allow you to proceed with integrity
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Critical Change Questions
What is the environment telling you prior to, during, and following the implementation of change?
what is the broader environment telling you about future economic, social, and technological conditions and trends?
what are your customers or clients telling you?
what are your competitors doing and how are they reacting to you?
what are the partners within your network doing and how are they responding to you?
what do the people who will potentially be the leaders, managers, and recipients of change want and need?

Why is change needed? Who sees this need?

What is your purpose and agenda? How does that purpose project to a worthwhile vision that goes to the heart of the matter?
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Critical Change Questions (cont..)
How will you implement and manage the change?
how will you resource the change?
how will you select and work with your change team?
how will you work with the broader organization?
how will you monitor progress so that you can steer, alter speed, and course, if necessary?
how will you ensure that you act ethically and with integrity?

What have you learned about change and how can you remember it in the future? How can you pass on what you learned?

Once the change is completed, what comes next? The completion of one change simply serves as the start point for the next.
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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Summary
We’ve challenged you to take time to read and think about change.

Now it’s time to deploy those ideas and act

Leading change will bring you many things—it will frustrate & invigorate, humble & empower, create doubt & fear while developing courage, fulfillment & joy…

By leading change, you will change yourself and the lives of those around you!

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
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