Video Analysis: “The African Americans: Many Rivers To Cross”: Making A Way Out Of No Way (1897-1940) “The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross”: Maki

Video Analysis: “The African Americans: Many Rivers To Cross”: Making A Way Out Of No Way (1897-1940) “The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross”: Maki

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Video Analysis: “The African Americans: Many Rivers To Cross”: Making A Way Out Of No Way (1897-1940) “The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross”: Making a Way Out of No Way (1897 – 1940) [Complete Film Analysis] (submit via Canvas )

https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x3aixtq (Links to an external site.) The African-American Odyssey, 6e
Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley C. Harrold

Chapter 17

African Americans
and the 1920s
1918–1929

The fight to stop lynchings was one of the NAACP’s most important campaigns in the early twentieth century. In the 1920s the NAACP fought unsuccessfully to secure anti-lynching legislation in Congress. To keep the issue in the public arena, the NAACP persisted with demonstrations and protests like this one at the Crime Conference in Washington, DC.

The anti-lynching campaign helped unify the various groups devoted to gaining civil-rights for African-Americans, as well as being an important method of publicizing the racism and violence that characterized life in the South

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Learning Objectives

17-1 Why was there an increase in intolerance in the 1920s?
17-2 How did the Ku Klux Klan become so influential in the 1920s?
17-3 How did major black organizations confront racial discrimination and promote progress in the 1920s?
17-4 Why did some black men and women who worked as Pullman Porters form a labor union, and what role did A. Philip Randolph play in those efforts to organize these workers?

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Learning Objectives (cont’d)

17-5 Who were some of the men and women involved in the cultural phenomenon known as the Harlem Renaissance, and what were some of their literary, artistic, dramatic, and musical contributions to that movement?
17-6 What was the role of Harlem and its inhabitants in what popularly became known as the Jazz Age?
17-7 What opportunities and obstacles confronted black athletes in the 1920s?

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Strikes and the Red Scare
Labor unrest
Prelude to revolution
3,600 strikes, 1919
Political leaders warned of communist overthrow
A. Mitchell Palmer
Xenophobia
Sacco and Vanzetti

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There were 3,600 strikes in 1919 as workers who during the war had deferred demands for pay raises and improved working conditions walked off their jobs

Strikes and the Red Scare (cont’d)
Red Scare
The widespread fear among any Americans in the years immediately after World War I from about 1918 to about 1924 that Russia’s 1917 Bolshevik Revolution might result in communists attempting to take over the U.S. government.

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Political leaders exacerbated these feelings by warning that communists and foreign agents were plotting to overthrow the government

Varieties of Racism
Scientific Racism

Cloaked in supposed scholarly studies
Race suicide: Americans being “diluted” by inferior people immigrating
Reflected ideology of Social Darwinism
Eastern and southern European immigrants were inferior

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Varieties of Racism (cont’d)
The Birth of a Nation

D. W. Griffith: directs film in 1915
KKK saves state from ignorant and immoral negroes
Based on The Clansman
Ignited racial violence

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Both the book and the film purported to depict Reconstruction in South Carolina
Story depicts immoral and ignorant Negroes joined by greedy white Republicans seizing control of state government
The heroic Ku Klux Klan saves the state and rescues its white womanhood
Enormously popular film

The glorification of the Ku Klux Klan in D. W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation, reflected in this publicity poster, outraged African Americans. The NAACP protested when the silent film was first distributed in 1915 and again when a sound version was released in 1930. The demonstrations attracted publicity to both the film and the NAACP.

Birth of a Nation was a significant technical achievement as well as one the film industry’s first blockbusters
It helped solidify many Southerner’s perceptions that the South was correct in imposing Jim Crow laws and segregation after Reconstruction

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Varieties of Racism (cont’d)

f
LO 17-1. In 1915, D. W. Griffith released , a cinematic masterpiece and historical travesty that depicted blacks in a highly negative light during the Reconstruction and rekindled racial violence.

A: The Rising Tide of Color
B: The Emperor Jones
C: Shuffle Along
D: The Birth of a Nation

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Varieties of Racism (cont’d)

f
LO 17-1. In 1915, D. W. Griffith released , a cinematic masterpiece and historical travesty that depicted blacks in a highly negative light during the Reconstruction and rekindled racial violence.

A: The Rising Tide of Color
B: The Emperor Jones
C: Shuffle Along
D: The Birth of a Nation

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Varieties of Racism (cont’d)

LO 17-1. Influenced by “Scientific Racism” in 1921 and 1924, Congress severely restricted immigration from southern and eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean, and prohibited it entirely from Asia.

A: True
B: False

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Varieties of Racism (cont’d)

LO 17-1. Influenced by “Scientific Racism” in 1921 and in 1924, Congress severely restricted immigration from southern and eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean, and prohibited it entirely from Asia.

A: True
B: False

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The Ku Klux Klan
Resurrected after Birth of a Nation
Stone Mountain, Thanksgiving 1915
William J. Simmons
Resurrected a few months after The Birth of a Nation

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The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s stood for white supremacy
Klansmen also styled themselves as “100 percent Americans” who opposed perceived threats from immigrants as well as black Americans

The Ku Klux Klan (cont’d)
White supremacy
Support in North, West as well as South
Perceived threats from immigrants and African Americans
Opposed immigrants, Blacks Jews, Catholics
Membership declined in late 1920s
Members fought amongst themselves
By 1925 had about five million members

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The Klan claimed to represent white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant America
The Klan found enormous support among apprehensive white middle-class Americans in the North and West
The Klan attacked the theory of evolution, fought for the prohibition of alcoholic beverages, and claimed to uphold the “sanctity” of white womanhood

The Ku Klux Klan (cont’d)

f
LO 17-2. In 1925, the Ku Klux Klan attracted small businessmen, shopkeepers, clerks, Protestant clergymen, farmers, and professional people and had an estimated
members.

A: 100,000
B: 60,0000
C: 1 million
D: 5 million

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The Ku Klux Klan (cont’d)

f
LO 17-2. In 1925, the Ku Klux Klan attracted small businessmen, shopkeepers, clerks, Protestant clergymen, farmers, and professional people and had an estimated
members.

A: 100,000
B: 60,0000
C: 1 million
D: 5 million

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*

The Ku Klux Klan (cont’d)

LO 17-2. The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s stood for white supremacy, and welcomed European immigrants into membership.

A: True
B: False

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The Ku Klux Klan (cont’d)

LO 17-2. The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s stood for white supremacy, and welcomed European immigrants into membership.

A: True
B: False

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*

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s
The NAACP
Expanded influence and increased membership
James Weldon Johnson
Fought hard for Dyer anti-lynching bill

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The NAACP continued its efforts to secure constitutional rights and guarantees by advocacy in the political and judicial systems
J. W. Johnson impressed both black and white people—an excellent diplomat who could negotiate and compromise, but he could also be blunt when necessary
Although Dyer legislation failed, NAACP publicized the persistence of barbaric mob behavior in a nation supposedly devoted to fairness and the rule of law

James Weldon Johnson was a man of immense talents: lawyer, diplomat, journalist, teacher, and gifted writer. Most important, he was an effective and dynamic civil rights
leader. Johnson also managed to write prolifically and imaginatively. In 1920, he wrote “The Creation: A Negro Sermon.”
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Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)
The NAACP
Relied on judicial system to protect black civil rights
Blacks barred from voting in Democratic primaries
NAACP hired Clarence Darrow to defend Ossian Sweet
Sweet acquitted of murder

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In Detroit in 1925, black physician Ossian Sweet and his family moved into an all-white neighborhood
For several nights a mob threatened the Sweet family and other people who defended them
One evening, shots fired from the Sweet home killed a white man

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)
“Up You Mighty Race”: Marcus Garvey and the UNIA

Black nationalist movement
Racial pride, Christian faith, economic cooperation
By the early 1920s UNIA spreads throughout United States
With slogan “One God! One Aim! One Destiny!” Garvey stresses need for blacks to organize for their own advancement

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Marcus Garvey’s UNIA became the largest mass movement of black people in American history
Garvey was an energetic, charismatic, and flamboyant leader who wove racial pride, Christian faith, and economic cooperation into a black nationalist organization
Garvey was born in 1887 in the British colony of Jamaica , becomes printer, travels to educate himself, lands in London, returns to Jamaica, and forms UNIA in 1914

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)
“Up You Mighty Race”: Marcus Garvey and the UNIA (cont’d)

Marcus Garvey: “Black Moses”
Established businesses that hired black people
Back-to-Africa movement: “Black Star Line”
Few African-American leaders admired him
Differed on strategy and goals
Believed every white man KKK
Indicted on mail fraud, sent to prison
Legacy persisted

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Garvey came to the United States in 1916 just as thousands of African Americans were migrating to cities
Builds UNIA to major movement
Although Garvey and the UNIA are most frequently associated with urban communities in the North, the UNIA also spread rapidly through the rural South in the 1920s

MyLab Media
Document: Marcus Garvey Calls for Black Separatism, 1921

http://auth.ebookplus.pearsoncmg.com/ebook/launchViewer.do?bookID=14923&globalBookID=CM97604171&bookEditionID=32190&invokeType=authoring&launchType=teacher

Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey arrived in the United States in 1916 and quickly rose to prominence as the head of the UNIA. Garvey appears here in a 1924 parade in Harlem, attired in a uniform similar to those worn by British colonial governors in Jamaica, Trinidad, and elsewhere.

A dynamic speaker whose message resonated among the disaffected urban working class, Garvey built the UNIA into a major movement
He urged his listeners to take pride in themselves as they restored their race to its previous greatness

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Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)
The African Blood Brotherhood
Pan-Africanism

A desire for people of African descent to unite
Share heritage
Discuss ties to continent
Moderate (eliminate) colonial rule in Africa
Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, Belgium, Spain, Italy
First Pan-African Congress, London, 1900

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In 1919, black men who had migrated to New York City from the Caribbean formed the African Blood Brotherhood as a radical alternative to Marcus Garvey
The brotherhood rejected Garvey’s reliance on capitalism and his devotion to Christianity, but instead supported Marxism
Garvey, Du Bois, Briggs, and other black leaders believed people of African descent should come together to share their heritage, discuss their ties to the continent
Ultimate goal—to moderate or end colonial rule of African continent

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)
The African Blood Brotherhood
Pan-Africanism (cont’d)

Second Pan-African Congress, Paris, 1919
Pan-Africanism
A movement of people of African descent from sub-Saharan Africa in the early twentieth century that emphasized their identity, shared experiences, and the need to liberate Africa from its European colonizers

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By 1914, Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, Belgium, Spain, and Italy had established colonies across almost all of Africa
Christian missionaries sought to convert Africans, and European companies exploited Africa’s human and natural resources
As they gained control over the continent, the European powers confirmed their conviction that they represented a superior race and culture

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)

LO 17-2. In 1925, the Ku Klux Klan attracted small businessmen, shopkeepers, clerks, Protestant clergymen, farmers, and professional people and had an estimated _________members.

A: 100,000
B: 60,0000
C: 1 million
D: 5 million

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)

LO 17-2. In 1925, the Ku Klux Klan attracted small businessmen, shopkeepers, clerks, Protestant clergymen, farmers, and professional people and had an estimated _________members.

A: 100,000
B: 60,0000
C: 1 million
D: 5 million

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)

LO 17-2. The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s stood for white supremacy, and welcomed European immigrants into membership.

A: True
B: False

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism:
Black Organizations in the 1920s (cont’d)

LO 17-2. The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s stood for white supremacy, and welcomed European immigrants into membership.

A: True
B: False

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Labor
Great Migration
Changes composition of industrial workforce
Intensified pressure on labor unions
Most major unions refused membership to black workers
Management hired black strikebreakers
NAACP, Urban League
Appealed to employers, unions, to hire blacks

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By 1916, 12,000 of the nearly 50,000 workers in the Chicago stockyards were black people
In Detroit, black laborers made up nearly 14 percent of the workforce in the automobile industry
By the World War I years, the NAACP and the Urban League regularly appealed to employers and unions to accept black laborers

The chart illustrates the increasing number of black workers employed in industry and transportation sectors of the American economy in 1920
In the next half century, that number would expand considerably while agricultural work declined in importance

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The disparity in educational levels and job skills in 1920 is illustrated above
These differences between black and white workers would decline in the next half century as barriers to education and employment for blacks were slowly eliminated

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Labor (cont’d)
The Brotherhood of
Sleeping Car Porters

Black employees of Pullman Company
Single largest employer of black people
Affluent white people used to black servants
Paid less than white workers
12,000 men worked as porters

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Pullman porters toiled for upward of 400 hours each month ( a hundred hours a week) to maintain the coaches and serve the passengers
Porters had to prepare the cars before the train’s departure, and service them after arriving, although they were paid only for the duration of the trip
They assisted passengers, shined shoes, and arranged sleeping compartments

Labor (cont’d)
The Brotherhood of
Sleeping Car Porters (cont’d)

Affluent white people used to black servants
Some had college degrees
Considered themselves respectable middle class
$67.50 average monthly pay
Up to $300 with tips

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Barred from business and industry, black men with college degrees often worked as sleeping car porters
As poorly paid as they were compared with many white workers, they still earned more than most black schoolteachers

Labor (cont’d)
A. Phillip Randolph

Socialist, committed to economic and racial change
Protest leader for five decades
Opposed American involvement in World War I
Arrested by Department of Justice, 1919

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. In 1925, Pullman porters in Harlem invited A. Philip Randolph to become their “general organizer” as they formed the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP)
Randolph was a socialist with superb oratorical skills who had earned a reputation as a radical on the streets of Harlem
Arrested in 1919, Justice Dept. labeled Randolph the most dangerous Negro in America

In this painting by Betsy G. Reyneau, A. Philip Randolph hardly resembles the militant agitator, activist, and labor leader that he was. He became the head of the BSCP, and he eventually rose to power in the AFL. He planned the first March on Washington in 1941 and was responsible for organizing the 1963 March on Washington. Betsy G. Reyneau, A. Philip Randolph. National Archives.

A. Philip Randolph is an example of how determined leadership could overcome even the most entrenched opposition to change within large American corporations
Randolph’s ability to communicate effectively to a large membership, as well as the public, brought about significant improvement of working conditions for thousands of Pullman employees

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Labor (cont’d)
Phillip Randolph (cont’d)

BSCP
Recruiting, recognition, acceptance
Acceptance took more than a decade
Resistance from black community
Black clergy
Defender

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Black clergymen counseled against union activities
Black newspapers, including the Chicago Defender, opposed the BSCP
Resistance from company—firing employees who joined union, created a company union, etc.
Not until the passage of legislation during President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal in the mid-1930s did the BSCP make substantial gains

Labor (cont’d)

f
LO 17-3. In the 1920s, the NAACP continued to rely on
to protect black Americans and enforce their civil rights.

A: the FBI
B: the judicial system
C: the Republican party
D: legally procured weapons

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Labor (cont’d)

f
LO 17-3. In the 1920s, the NAACP continued to rely on
to protect black Americans and enforce their civil rights.

A: the FBI
B: the judicial system
C: the Republican party
D: legally procured weapons

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Labor (cont’d)

LO 17-3. One of the largest and most important unions which actively supported black workers was the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

A: True
B: False

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Labor (cont’d)

LO 17-3. One of the largest and most important unions which actively supported black workers was the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

A: True
B: False

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The Harlem Renaissance
Explosion of creative arts in 1920s
Proliferation of white and black artists
Hemingway, Cather, Pound, Fitzgerald
Many critical of American society

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Black intellectuals congregated in Manhattan and gave rise to the creative movement known as the Harlem Renaissance
Alain Locke promoted The New Negro
Poets, novelists, and painters probed racial themes and grappled with what it meant to be black in America

This timeline tracks only some of the most important vibrant cultural developments in New York during the 1920s and 1930s during the Harlem Renaissance

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Artist Aaron Douglas (1899–1979) was born in Topeka, Kansas, and was the sole black student at the University of Nebraska when he graduated in 1922. He moved to Harlem in 1925 and shortly after that visited Paris, where he met celebrated black artist Henry Ossawa Tanner. Douglas returned to Harlem and then taught art at Fisk University in Nashville from 1937 to 1966. His paintings reflected his deep interest in the African-American experience. Notice the Ku Klux Klan as well as black soldiers in this work. Aaron Douglas, Aspects of Negro Life, Oil on canvas, 60″ ×139”, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Art & Artifacts Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation.

The Harlem Renaissance gradually emerged in the early 1920s and then expanded as more creative figures were drawn to Harlem including those such as Aaron Douglas who had exposure to international artists during his sojourn in Paris

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The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)
Harlem Renaissance
As New York City became a destination for black migrants before, during, and after World War I, most of them settled in Harlem—a large neighborhood in the northern portion of Manhattan Island— which by the 1920s became a center of African-American cultural activities including literature, art, and music

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No matter when it began, the Harlem Renaissance produced stunning artistic works, especially in creative writing, that continued into the 1930s

The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)
Before Harlem

Serious cultural developments among blacks before 1920s
Novelists, poets, historians
Need for scholarly academics stressed

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From 1897 to 1928, the American Negro Academy was a forum for the Talented Tenth– Alain Locke, Kelly Miller, and Du Bois reflected on race and color
Charles W. Chesnutt –The House behind the Cedars, and The Marrow of Tradition
Ohio poet Paul Laurence Dunbar wrote evocatively of black life, frequently relying on black dialect
Henry Ossawa Tanner, painter who moved to Europe in 1893
Carter G. Woodson, the son of Virginia slaves, earned a Ph.D. at Harvard in history and founded in 1915 the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History

The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)
Writers and Artists

Few blacks had access to college education
Zora Neal Hurston, Langston Hughes
Many black writers were educated at nation’s finest schools

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Only about 2,000 African Americans were pursuing college degrees by 1920
Nella Larsen was the only major writer connected to the Harlem Renaissance who did not have a college degree
The Harlem Renaissance gradually emerged in the early 1920s and then expanded as more creative figures were drawn to Harlem
In 1923, Jean Toomer published Cane, a collection of stories and poetry about southern black life

The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)
Writers and Artists (cont’d)

Publications featured Harlem Renaissance authors
Disagreements over purpose of black literature
Some wanted positive image of blacks in works
Langston Hughes defended authenticity of black works

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In the meantime, the Crisis, as well as Opportunity, a new publication of the Urban League, published the poetry and short stories of black authors, including Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Zora Neale Hurston.

MyLab Media
Audio: I, Too: reading by Langston Hughes

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The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)
White People and the Harlem Renaissance

Zora Neale Hurston
Carl Van Vechten
Nigger Heaven
White supporters
Financial backing
Saw black culture as unsophisticated and primitive
Harlem inhabitant seen as
Exotic, curious, and uncivilized by whites

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Zora Neale Hurston called the white people who took an interest in Harlem “Negrotarians” and her black literary colleagues the “Niggerati”
No white man was more attracted to the cultural developments in Harlem than photographer and writer Carl Van Vechten
In 1926, he caused a furor with his novel Nigger Heaven–novel dealt with the coarser aspects of life in Harlem, irritated Du Bois, Fauset, and Countee Cullen
But Van Vechten wanted a more honest depiction of the black experience, and James Weldon Johnson, Walter White, and Langston Hughes approved of the novel
White patrons like Amy Spingarn, whose husband Joel was president of the NAACP board of directors, and Charlotte Osgood “Godmother” Mason supported black writers and artists

MyLab Media
Video: The Harlem Renaissance

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The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)

f
LO 17-5. A major disagreement erupted during the Harlem Renaissance over the definition and purpose of black literature with writers such as Claude McKay, Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston arguing that their work should .

A: portray the streets and shadows of Harlem and the lives of poor black people
B: promote only positive images of black people
C: not focus on the effects of Jim Crow laws
D: resolve racial conflict

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The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)

f
LO 17-5. A major disagreement erupted during the Harlem Renaissance over the definition and purpose of black literature with writers such as Claude McKay, Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston arguing that their work should .

A: portray the streets and shadows of Harlem and the lives of poor black people
B: promote only positive images of black people
C: not focus on the effects of Jim Crow laws
D: resolve racial conflict

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The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)

LO 17-5. No white man was more attracted to Harlem Renaissance than photographer and writer Langston Hughes, who in 1926 published a novel Nigger Heaven.

A: True
B: False

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The Harlem Renaissance (cont’d)

LO 17-5. No white man was more attracted to Harlem Renaissance than photographer and writer Langston Hughes, who in 1926 published a novel Nigger Heaven.

A: True
B: False

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Harlem and the Jazz Age
Eighteenth Amendment: Volstead Act creates Prohibition
Cotton Club: Harlem’s most exclusive nightclub
Black waiters and entertainers
Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington orchestra
Thomas Fats Waller plays at Connie’s
White, well-to-do customers
Rent party

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As powerful and important as these black literary voices were, they were less popular than the entertainers, musicians, singers, and dancers who were also part of the Harlem Renaissance
Without Harlem, the 1920s would not have been the Jazz Age
Harlem’s clubs, cabarets, theaters, and ballrooms echoed with the vibrant and soulful sounds of African Americans

She was called the “Empress of the Blues,” and during the 1920s no singer in America was more popular than Bessie Smith.

The gradual expansion of African-American blues and jazz music into white communities was made possible by the advent of electronic recording and playback and the development of radio technology

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Harlem and the Jazz Age (cont’d)
Song, Dance, and Stage

Broadway shows and revues includes black entertainers
Florence Mills
Ethel Waters
Smoky gin joints to Billy Graham Crusade
Serious drama
O’Neil, Gershwin, and Hammerstein
Paul Robeson

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Black women became popular as singers and dancers in Harlem and then often appeared in Broadway shows and revues
White men wrote many of the popular Broadway productions that starred black entertainers
In 1921, however, Eubie Blake and Noble Sissle put on Shuffle Along, which became a major hit
Sissle and Blake’s Chocolate Dandies in 1924 was created especially for a thin, lanky, dark, and funny young lady named Josephine Baker
Baker moves to Paris to perform in 1925 and stays the rest of her life

Harlem and the Jazz Age (cont’d)

f
LO 17-6. was Harlem’s most exclusive and fashionable nightspot which opened in 1923 and catered to well-to-do white people.

A. Connie’s
B: Hot Chocolates
C: The Cotton Club
D: The Sugar Cane

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Harlem and the Jazz Age (cont’d)

f
LO 17-6. was Harlem’s most exclusive and fashionable nightspot which opened in 1923 and catered to well-to-do white people.

A. Connie’s
B: Hot Chocolates
C: The Cotton Club
D: The Sugar Cane

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Harlem and the Jazz Age (cont’d)

LO 17-6. One of the most popular Broadway productions of 1924 was Chocolate Dandies starring Josephine Baker who became a star, but moved to Paris the following year and never returned to America.

A: True
B: False

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Harlem and the Jazz Age (cont’d)

LO 17-6. One of the most popular Broadway productions of 1924 was Chocolate Dandies starring Josephine Baker who became a star, but moved to Paris the following year and never returned to America.

A: True
B: False

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Conclusion
For blacks, little seemed changed from previous decades
Racial violence and lynching continued
The Birth of a Nation
Scientific racism
Ku Klux Klan had …

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