Video Analysis: “The African Americans: Many Rivers To Cross”: The Black Atlantic (1500-1800) The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross”: The Black Atlan

Video Analysis: “The African Americans: Many Rivers To Cross”: The Black Atlantic (1500-1800) The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross”: The Black Atlan

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Video Analysis: “The African Americans: Many Rivers To Cross”: The Black Atlantic (1500-1800) The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross”: The Black Atlantic (1500 – 1800) [Complete Film Analysis]

https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x3ac3rl African Americans:
A Concise History, Combined Volume, 5e
Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley C. Harrold

Chapter 5

African Americans
in the New Nation
1783–1820

This recent photograph portrays one of several buildings used as slave quarters on Hermitage, Savannah, Georgia. Built during the mid-seventeenth century, the small brick building housed two African-American families into the Civil War years.

This photograph highlights how slavery is remembered and portrayed in the South, where slave quarters, cemeteries, and plantations have become tourist attractions for those interested the history of the period.

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Learning Objectives

5-1 What forces worked for black freedom after the Revolution?
5-2 Why did slavery survive in the new United States?
5-3 What were the characteristics of early free black communities?
5-4 Who were the early black leaders in America and what were their varying ideas, tactics, and solutions for the problems faced by blacks?
5-5 How did the War of 1812 affect African Americans?
5-6 What impact did the Missouri Compromise have on African Americans?

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Forces for Freedom
In postrevolutionary North, slavery not economically essential
Immigration bought cheap white laborers
Natural rights doctrines, evangelical Christianity add support to anti-slavery efforts

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Slavery widespread but not economically essential in North after the revolution
White laborers resented slave competition
Slaveholders have difficulty defending slavery

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
Missouri Compromise, 1820
A congressional attempt to settle the issue of slavery expansion in the United States by permitting Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, admitting Maine as a free state, and banning slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36° 30′ line of latitude

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Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
Northern Emancipation
New England states moved quickly to emancipation
Massachusetts slave Quok Walker refused to stay in servitude; whites acquiesced
First U.S. census in 1790 finds no slaves in Massachusetts

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Vermont and Massachusetts, certainly, and New Hampshire, probably, abolished slavery immediately during the 1770s and 1780s
1783 Massachusetts Supreme Court ruling says “slavery is . . . as effectively abolished as it can be by the granting of rights and privileges wholly incompatible and repugnant to its existence.”

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
Northern Emancipation (cont’d)

Struggle against slavery harder in mid-Atlantic states
Massachusetts had “free and equal” clause in constitution; black men have right to vote
Emancipation slow in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania

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Connecticut and Rhode Island, the state legislatures, rather than individual African Americans, took the initiative against slavery
New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania – the investment in slaves was much greater than in New England
NY, NJ, PA had relatively large slave populations, powerful slaveholders, and white workforces fearful of free black competition

This map charts the gradual emancipation of northern slaves in the period after the earliest efforts at abolishing slavery in the late eighteenth century.

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This table illustrates the rapid decline in slavery in the Mid-Atlantic states in the half-century before the Civil War.

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This timeline highlights the events that led to the abolition of slavery in the North before the Civil War.

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Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

1787 Ordinance bans slavery from Old Northwest region
Region south of Ohio River open to slavery
Some remained slaves in Old Northwest
Ordinance set precedent for excluding slavery

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Congress’s decides to limit slavery’s expansion
During the 1780s, the national government acquires jurisdiction over the region west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River
Increasing numbers of white Americans migrated across the Appalachians into this huge region during/after revolution
Jefferson proposes after 1800 slavery be banned from the entire region stretching from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (cont’d)

Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Based on earlier legislation drafted by Thomas Jefferson, it organized the Northwest Territory, providing for orderly land sales, public education, government, the creation of five to seven states out of the territory, and the prohibition of slavery within the territory.

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Northwest Ordinance applied the essence of Jefferson’s plan to the region north of the Ohio River

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
Antislavery Societies in the North and Upper South

Only whites participated in Quaker-dominated organizations
Abolitionists feared immediate emancipation
Elderly slaves would be abandoned
Slaves would require training before freedom
Many slaveholders opposed slavery in abstract, not practice
Antislavery societies in Upper South small, short lived

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In 1775, Quaker abolitionist Anthony Benezet organized the first antislavery society in the world
In 1787, it became the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and Benjamin Franklin became its president
From 1794 to 1832, antislavery societies cooperated within the loose framework of the American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and Improving the Condition of the African Race

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
Antislavery Societies in the North
and Upper South (cont’d)

Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery (Pennsylvania Abolition Society (1787–present)
An antislavery organization centered in Philadelphia and based on an earlier Quaker society; exclusively white, it promoted gradual abolition, black self-improvement, freedom suits, and protection of African Americans against kidnapping

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By 1800, there were abolition societies in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Virginia.

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
Antislavery Societies in the North
and Upper South (cont’d)

American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and Improving the Condition of the African Race (1794–1838)
A loose coalition of state and local societies, dominated by the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, dedicated to gradual abolition

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These societies aimed at gradual, compensated emancipation

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
Manumission and Self-Purchase

Virginia repealed long-standing ban on manumission
Masters profited by self-purchase agreements
Slaves paid in installments for freedom
Self-purchase often left African Americans in financial trouble

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After the Revolution, most southern states liberalized their manumission laws so masters could free individual slaves by deed or will
Motivated by religion or natural rights, hundreds of slaveholders in the Upper South freed slaves individually

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)
The Emergence of a Free Black Class in the South

Most of Upper South’s black population remained in slavery
In Deep South few masters freed slaves
Free black class identified with former masters

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The free black population of the Upper South blossomed
Generally, masters in the Deep South freed only their illegitimate slave children, other favorites, or those unable to work
The emergence of a free black class in the South, especially in the Deep South, produced social strata more similar to those in Latin America

Forces for Freedom (cont’d)

f
LO 5-1. abolished slavery immediately during the 1770s and 1780s.

A: Pennsylvania and New Jersey
B: Maryland and Delaware
C: Virginia and Maryland
D: Vermont and Massachusetts

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Forces for Freedom (cont’d)

f
LO 5-1. abolished slavery immediately during the 1770s and 1780s.

A: Pennsylvania and New Jersey
B: Maryland and Delaware
C: Virginia and Maryland
D: Vermont and Massachusetts

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Forces for Freedom (cont’d)

LO 5-1. In 1787, Congress adopted the Northwest Ordinance banning slavery in the region north of the Ohio River.

A: True
B: False

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Forces for Freedom (cont’d)

LO 5-1. In 1787, Congress adopted the Northwest Ordinance banning slavery in the region north of the Ohio River.

A: True
B: False

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Forces for Slavery
Forces for slavery stronger than for freedom

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Abolition took place in the North, where slavery was weak
In the South, where it was strong, slavery thrived

Forces for Slavery (cont’d)
The U.S. Constitution

Constitution major force in favor of continued slavery
Constitution prevented abolishment of slave trade until 1808
Gave masters power to pursue escaped slaves
Slaveholders claim acute labor shortages
Southern slaveholders given more representation

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By the mid-1780s, wealthy and powerful men perceived that the Confederation Congress was too weak to protect their interests
Congress’s inability to regulate commerce led to trade disputes among the states
Congress’s inability to tax prevented it from maintaining an army and navy
Shay’s Rebellion in 1786 led to Constitutional Convention
Constitutional Convention made important concessions to southern slaveholders

MyLab Media
Video: Slavery and the Constitution

http://www.mathxl.com/info/MediaPopup.aspx?origin=1&disciplineGroup=5&type=Video&loc=HTTP@media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/history/MHL/US/videos/slavery-large.html&width=850&height=680&autoh=yes&centerwin=yes

Forces for Slavery (cont’d)
The U.S. Constitution (cont’d)

Fugitive Slave Act of 1793
An act of Congress permitting masters to recapture escaped slaves who had reached the free states and, with the authorization of local courts, return with the slave or slaves to their home state

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Forces for Slavery (cont’d)
The U.S. Constitution (cont’d)

Three-Fifths Clause
A clause in the U.S. Constitution providing that a slave be counted as three-fifths of a free person in determining a state’s representation in Congress and the electoral college and three-fifths of a free person in regard to per capita taxes levied by Congress on the states

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As a result of this clause, the South gained enormous political advantage
For many years, this clause contributed to the domination of the U.S. government by slaveholding southerners

Forces for Slavery (cont’d)
Cotton

Increased cotton cultivation fostered continued enslavement
Cotton gin removes seeds to increase production
Cotton became most lucrative U.S. import
Cotton reinvigorated the slave-labor system

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Britain led the world in textile manufacturing by late 18th century
British demand for raw cotton rises as mechanization of textile trade makes spinning cotton cheaper
Cotton production in the United States rose from 3,000 bales in 1790 to 178,000 bales in 1810
Southern cotton production also encouraged the development of textile mills in New England, thereby creating a proslavery alliance

Forces for Slavery (cont’d)
Cotton (cont’d)

Cotton gin
A simple machine invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 to separate cotton seeds from cotton fiber; it greatly speeded this task and encouraged the westward expansion of cotton-growing in the United States

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Cotton gin increases ability to process cotton, leading to greater demand for raw cotton, slave labor

Harpers Weekly printed this “conjectural work” in 1869. Although the clothing worn by the men and women shown reflects styles of a later era, the machine suggests how slaves used the gin Eli Whitney invented in 1793.

This engraving illustrates the early use of the cotton gin to increase production in the nineteenth century.
The background images of white planters examining cotton indicate the close scrutiny of slaves and their work output.

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This chart illustrates the gradual expansion of plantation slavery in the Deep South in the decades leading up to the Civil War.

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Forces for Slavery (cont’d)
The Louisiana Purchase and African Americans in the Lower Mississippi Valley

Louisiana Purchase accelerated westward progression of slavery
Demand for sugar, cotton caused harsh slave conditions
Tobacco, indigo earliest plantation crops
Many sold to slave markets in New Orleans

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People of African descent were a majority of the New Orleans population and they consisted of two distinct groups:
First were the free people of color who called themselves Creoles, spoke French; usually craftsmen and shopkeepers
The second black group consisted of slaves, most of whom had come directly from Africa and worked on Louisiana plantations
In 1770 Louisiana had a slave population of 5,600; by 1820 the slave population numbered 149,654`

Forces for Slavery (cont’d)
Conservatism and Racism

Increasing proslavery sentiment among white Americans
Response to radicalism of French Revolution
American valued property rights, including human property
Race used to justify slavery
Blacks supposedly unsuited for freedom
Laws implied blacks only place was as slaves

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A more intense racism among white people was important in strengthening slavery
In the North and the Chesapeake, whites became less willing to challenge the prerogatives of slaveholders, more willing to accept slavery
France’s bloody class and religious warfare, disruption of the social order, and redistribution of property led white Americans to value property rights—including rights to human property—and order above equal rights
New scientific racism supported this outlook: great chain of being from lesser to higher creatures created by God

Forces for Slavery (cont’d)
Conservatism and Racism (cont’d)

Domestic slave trade
A trade dating from the first decade of the nineteenth century in American-born slaves purchased primarily in the border South and sent overland or by sea to the cotton-growing regions of the Old Southwest

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During the 1790s, Congress expressed its determination to exclude African Americans from the benefits of citizenship in “a white man’s country”

Forces for Slavery (cont’d)

f
LO 5-2. The Constitution strengthened the political power of slaveholders through .

A: the Second Amendment
B: banning slavery only in the north
C: the Three-Fifths Clause
D: banning the importation of slaves

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Forces for Slavery (cont’d)

f
LO 5-2. The Constitution strengthened the political power of slaveholders through .

A: the Second Amendment
B: banning slavery only in the north
C: the Three-Fifths Clause
D: banning the importation of slaves

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Forces for Slavery (cont’d)

LO 5-2. Four factors that fostered continued enslavement of African Americans included increased cultivation of rice, the Louisiana Purchase, declining revolutionary fervor, and the spread of abolitionist sentiment.

A: True
B: False

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Forces for Slavery (cont’d)

LO 5-2. Four factors that fostered continued enslavement of African Americans included increased cultivation of rice, the Louisiana Purchase, declining revolutionary fervor, and the spread of abolitionist sentiment.

A: True
B: False

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The Emergence of
Free Black Communities
Earliest black community institutions were mutual aid societies

Provided for members’ medical and burial expenses
Helped support widows and children
Societies spread to every black urban community
Societies maintained Christian moral character

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Competing forces of slavery and racism, freedom, and opportunity shaped the growth of African-American community
Blacks wanted institutions that would perpetuate African heritage
They knew they would have inferior status in white organizations, so they needed to form their own
First mutual aid societies formed in Newport, Rhode Island, 1780, followed by Free African Society in Philadelphia, 1787

The Emergence of
Free Black Communities (cont’d)
Black Freemasons particularly important
Prince Hall, most famous Black mason
Organized first lodge in Boston
Authorized black lodges in other cities
Prince Hall Masons
A black Masonic order formed in 1791 in Boston under the leadership of Prince Hall. He became its first grand master and promoted its expansion to other cities

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An entrepreneur, abolitionist, and an advocate of black education, Hall is founder of the African Lodge of North America, popularly known as the

Prince Hall Masons
Masons provide mutual aid also opportunities to socialize, network

This late eighteenth-century portrait of Prince Hall (1735?–1807) dressed as a gentleman places him among Masonic symbols. A former slave, a skilled craftsman and entrepreneur, an abolitionist, and an advocate of black education, Hall is best remembered as the founder of the African Lodge of North America, popularly known as the Prince Hall Masons.

This engraving of Prince Hall underlines the ability of free African-Americans to rise into the ranks of the middle class in the North after the American Revolution.

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The Emergence of
Free Black Communities (cont’d)
The Origins of Independent Black Churches

African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church
Founded in Philadelphia in 1816, it was the first and became the largest independent black church

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African-American churches attend to the spiritual needs of free black people and slaves
Their pastors also became the primary African-American leaders

Raphaelle Peale, the son of famous Philadelphia portraitist Charles Wilson Peale, completed this oil portrait of the Reverend Absalom Jones (1746–1818) in 1810. Reverend Jones is shown in his ecclesiastical robes holding a Bible in his hand.

This painting of the Reverend Absalom Jones by Raphael Peal demonstrates the importance of clergy as leaders in the African-American community.

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The Emergence of
Free Black Communities (cont’d)
The First Black Schools

Blacks found own schools dating to early 1700s
Schools faced great difficulties
Blacks couldn’t afford fees
Some blacks thought education pointless
Whites feared educated blacks would encourage slave revolt
Threats of violence against black schools common

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North and South: white clergy ran the schools as did Quakers, abolition societies, Anglican missionaries
Free black people in Baltimore supported schools during the 1790s; similar schools open in Washington D.C. in early 1800s
Philadelphia’s Mother Bethel church starts first school with black teachers and students

The Emergence of
Free Black Communities (cont’d)

f
LO 5-3. In 1816, Philadelphia became the birthplace of the
.

A: first benevolent aid society
B: the first black schools in America
C: the black Episcopal church
D: African Methodist Episcopal Church

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The Emergence of
Free Black Communities (cont’d)

f
LO 5-3. In 1816, Philadelphia became the birthplace of the
.

A: first benevolent aid society
B: the first black schools in America
C: the black Episcopal church
D: African Methodist Episcopal Church

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The Emergence of
Free Black Communities (cont’d)

LO 5-3. The earliest black community institutions were mutual aid societies, which were similar to insurance companies and benevolent organizations.

A: True
B: False

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The Emergence of
Free Black Communities (cont’d)

LO 5-3. The earliest black community institutions were mutual aid societies, which were similar to insurance companies and benevolent organizations.

A: True
B: False

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Black Leaders and Choices
Clergy prominent among educated black elite
Influential ministers include Richard Allen, Absalom Jones, Jupiter Hammon, John Chavis
Prince Hall, James Forten – African-American entrepreneurs

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By the 1790s an educated black elite existed in the North and the Chesapeake
Elites were acculturated, patriotic; had attained some well-being and security, but also knew of failure of American revolutionary principles
Vying with clergy for influence were African-American entrepreneurs such as Prince Hall

Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)
Leaders often differed about what was best for African Americans
Hammon, Chavis condemned slavery but were not activists
Allen, Jones, Hall, Forten: blacks mold own destiny

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Allen, Jones, Hall, and Forten were more optimistic than Hammon and Chavis about blacks’ prospects in America
Although he was often frustrated, Hall pursued a strategy based on the assumption that white authority would reward black protest and patriotism

MyLab Media
Document: Richard Allen, “Address to the Free People of Colour of these United States,” 1830

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/history/MHL/US/documents/Allen_Free_People_of_Colour_1830.html

James Forten, portrait by an unknown artist.

A wealthy businessmen and active abolitionist, James Forten gained a great deal of influence in Philadelphia and throughout the north by organizing other free African-Americans and clergy members to lobby for equal rights and women’s suffrage.

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Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)
Migration

African Americans could establish societies outside U.S.
Back to Africa: Freetown in Sierra Leone
Coker leads group to new colony of Liberia
Paul Cuffe, black advocate of Africa colonization
Saw it as way to end slave trade

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In 1787, British philanthropists, including Olaudah Equiano, established Freetown in Sierra Leone
In 1816, influential whites organized the American Colonization Society

Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)
Migration (cont’d)
American Colonization Society
An organization founded in Washington, D.C., by prominent slaveholders; it claimed to encourage the ultimate abolition of slavery by sending free African Americans to its West African colony of Liberia

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Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)
Slave Uprisings

Some slaves joined revolutionary movements to destroy slavery
Louverture led Haitian uprising, inspired African Americans
In Virginia, Gabriel prepared massive slave insurrection
Gabriel caught before uprising; convicted and hanged

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Slaves pursue a variety of types of strategies to gain freedom
Slave revolts in Richmond, VA and New Orleans raise hopes of freedom
Philosophical principles drive many rebellions: desire to gain natural human rights
Mass hangings of plotters in VA, New Orleans response to plots

Toussaint Louverture (1744–1803) led the black rebellion in the French colony of St. Domingue on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola that led to the creation of the independent black republic of Haiti in 1804. Louverture became an inspiration for black rebels in the United States.

This engraving illustrates Toussaint Louverture’s ability to take command of a massive black rebellion, overturn colonial French authority in Haiti and terrify much of the planter class across the Caribbean and American South.

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Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)
Slave Uprisings (cont’d)

Deslondes initiated Louisiana Rebellion; plundered, burned plantations
U.S. troops slaughtered rebels
Deslondes found guilty of rebellion and shot

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Well-armed white men slaughtered 66 rebels, captured 30, convicted 22, and shot them

Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)
The White Southern Reaction

Fearing race war, whites make black bondage stronger
Southern states outlaw assemblies; increase patrols
Whites assume local free blacks involved in uprisings
Whites advocate forcing blacks to leave U.S.

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Beginning with South Carolina in December 1800, southern states also place curfews on slaves and free black people
Also make manumission more difficult
White southerners became suspicious of outsiders, assuming slave rebellions were supported by abolitionists

Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)

f
LO 5-4. In addition to organizing a black fraternal organization, Prince Hall petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to support efforts by black Bostonians to .

A: establish a colony in Africa
B: establish the first black-owned bank
C: create an African American church
D: end slavery in the state

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Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)

f
LO 5-4. In addition to organizing a black fraternal organization, Prince Hall petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to support efforts by black Bostonians to .

A: establish a colony in Africa
B: establish the first black-owned bank
C: create an African American church
D: end slavery in the state

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Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)

LO 5-4. In reaction to slave rebellions, beginning in 1800 southern states made manumissions easier in order to lessen tensions.

A: True
B: False

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Black Leaders and Choices (cont’d)

LO 5-4. In reaction to slave rebellions, beginning in 1800 southern states made manumissions easier in order to lessen tensions.

A: True
B: False

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The War of 1812
Britsh, French struggled for control of Atlantic world
U.S. didn’t gain Canada, war was a draw
Blacks feared, not allowed to be militia
Southern states refused to enlist blacks
British offered blacks freedom in return for help

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British military support for American Indian resistance in the Old Northwest draw U.S. into Franco-British war
Americans desire to annex Canada
U.S. fails annexation of Canada; Washington D.C. burned by British, supported by African American troops
Most white southerners joined John Randolph of Virginia in regarding African Americans as “an internal foe.”
African-American men fought at two of the war’s most important battles: Lake Erie, 1813 and Battle of New Orleans, 1815

The War of 1812 (cont’d)
Blacks did fight Battle of New Orleans
General Jackson offered blacks equal pay, benefits

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Battle of New Orleans fought in January 1815, about a month after a peace treaty had been negotiated but not ratified

This map illustrates the wide-ranging battles that characterized the War of 1812, and the ability of the British to penetrate deep into American territory.
African Americans played a role in defending New Orleans.

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The War of 1812 (cont’d)

f
LO 5-5. In the War of 1812, American forces won important victories but failed to conquer Canada, , and allowed the war to end in a draw.

A: lost control of the Great Lakes region
B: suffered the burning of Washington, D.C.
C: lost most naval battles with the British
D: suffered the burning of much of New York City

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The War of 1812 (cont’d)

f
LO 5-5. In the War of 1812, American forces won important victories but failed to conquer Canada, , and allowed the war to end in a draw.

A: lost control of the Great Lakes region
B: suffered the burning of Washington, D.C.
C: lost most naval battles with the British
D: suffered the burning of much of New York City

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The War of 1812 (cont’d)

LO 5-5. The threat the British army posed to Philadelphia and New York led to the first active black involvement in the War of 1812 on the American side.

A: True
B: False

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The War of 1812 (cont’d)

LO 5.5. The threat the British army posed to Philadelphia and New York led to the first active black involvement in the War of 1812 on the American side.

A: True
B: False

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The Missouri Compromise
After 1815, North, South sectional issues revived
First political parties, Federalist, Republican
Increasingly pro-slavery administrations after 1800
Missouri territory applies for admission as slave state, 1819
North fears it would expand slavery elsewhere
Jefferson, southerners fear restrictions

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The Federalist and the Republican parties failed to confront slavery as a national issue
The northern wing of the modernizing Federalist Party had abolitionist tendencies
The victory of the agrarian and state-rights-oriented Republican Party in 1800 fatally weakened the Federalist party
African Americans appreciate the significance of Missouri crisis

The Missouri Comprise (cont’d)
Compromise allows Missouri as slave state
Maine admitted to union a free state
Slavery banned north of old Louisiana Territory

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After compromise, a new black and white antislavery militancy soon confronted the white South

MyLab Media
Interactive Map: The Missouri Compromise of 1820

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