Week 5 Mental Health And Aging For this topic, think about the unhealthy behaviors that you’ve seen among college students, especially those that increase

Week 5 Mental Health And Aging For this topic, think about the unhealthy behaviors that you’ve seen among college students, especially those that increase

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For this topic, think about the unhealthy behaviors that you’ve seen among college students, especially those that increase the chances of developing chronic diseases (i.e. not with respect to COVID). Choose the three that you think stand out as the unhealthiest and state why each is so unhealthy. 

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Health and Prevention
“Do not try to live forever, you will not succeed.”

George Bernard Shaw
1856-1950

AGEFEED

#TIPS

1. Stay connected to friends and family. Loneliness can be harmful to your health.
2. Eat a healthy diet. High-fiber fruits, veggies, and whole grains help keep the digestive

system functioning. Avoid sugar, salt, prepackaged foods, butter, and fatty meats.
3. Watch your weight to avoid arthritis. Excess weight puts pressure on the weight-

bearing joints eventually leading to irreversible damage.
4. Stay physically active. Strength training and balance exercises can help reduce falls as

you age.
5. Practice sleep healthy habits. Turn off technology before bed and stick to a consistent

schedule.
6. Stop smoking or using any tobacco products. Now!
7. Take good care of your teeth. Brushing, flossing, and seeing the dentist can help

prevent later-life oral problems including gum recession, staining, decay, and tooth loss.
8. Learn to manage stress. Coping with stress can promote physical and mental health.
9. Stay on top of your health. Get regular check-ups and follow your medical

professional’s advice.
10.Take dance classes. You’ll get your exercise while benefiting from the mental

stimulation involved in learning new moves and remembering choreography.

KEY CONCEPTS IN
HEALTH AND
PREVENTION

Activities of daily living (ADL)

Eating Bathing Dressing

Transferring Toileting

Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL):
• Use the telephone
• Go shopping
• Prepare meals
• Complete housekeeping tasks
• Do the laundry
• Use private or public transportation
• Take medications
• Handle finances

Tobacco use

Alcohol use

Unhealthy diet

Sedentary lifestyle

Obesity

Cancer

Cardiovascular
disease

Diabetes

Chronic lung
disease

RI
SK

F
A

CT
O

RS

CH
RO

N
IC D

ISEA
SE

34.4

6
3.2

10.1

31.1

12.5

55.7

13.9

6.6

22.4

47.6

23

59.1

25.1

11.1

30.7

51.9

19.4

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Hypertension Coronary Heart Disease Stroke Cancer, All Arthritis Diabetes

Percent within Age Groups 45 and Older with Chronic Conditions

45-64 65-74 75+

Non-Communicable Disease Burden

As of 2018, NCD’s
accounted for deaths of

41 million people
worldwide

Over 85% of those
deaths occur in low and
middle-income countries
where they affect <70 yrs
old

DISEASES OF THE
CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM

Eastern Europe has the highest prevalence of deaths from heart disease (adjusted for age) followed by Central Asia
and Central Europe. The lowest rates of heart disease are in Central Sub-Saharan Africa, with similarly low rates in
southern Latin America and the high income countries in the Asia Pacific region

25% 27%
35%

50-64 65-74 75+

Rates of physical inactivity

14%
inactivity in
college-
educated

Development
of
atherosclerosis

As plaque builds up in t he art e rie s of a pe rson wit h he art
dise ase , t he inside of t he art e rie s be gins t o narrow, which
le sse ns or blocks t he flow of blood.

A st roke happe ns w he n a
blood clot blocks blood
flow t o t he brain. This
cause s brain t issue t o
be come damage d or die .

HIGH BLOOD SUGAR

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

LOW HDL (“GOOD”)
CHOLESTEROL

HIGH TRIGLYCERIDES

EXCESS FAT AROUND WAIST

METABOLIC SYNDROME

Metabolic syndrome is a term used to characterize people who
show 3 of the 5 risk factors illustrated here.

Prevention of heart disease and
stroke relies on 3 key factors

Cancer

Percent of new cancer cases by age, U.S.

Overweight and obesity present
risk factors for cancer among
women.

Worldwide
cancer deaths in
2018

9.6 million deaths from cancer in 2018

70% were in low- and middle-income countries

One-third due to risk factors of :high BMI, low
intake of fruits and vegetables, sedentary life
style, and use of tobacco and alcohol.

The most common cancers are lung, breast,
colorectal, prostate, skin, and stomach, with the
most number of deaths due to lung cancer

Forms of cancer treatment

Radiation Surgery Chemotherapy Targeted drug
therapies

Targeted therapy treats cancer by targeting the
changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide,
and spread.

DISEASES OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL
SYSTEM

A jo in t w it h s e ve r e o s t e o a r t h r it is

Risk factors
and
treatment for
osteoarthritis

Risk Factors
• Impact and

repeated use of
joints

• Overweight and
obese, especially
affects lower
joints

Treatment
• Over-the-counter

pain medications
• Exercise, geared to

individual’s ability
• Injection into joints

affects
• Replacement of joint

Percentage of adults
with arthritis by
obesity, diabetes, and
heart disease status,
U.S. 2013-2015 (age-
adjusted)

Osteoporosis

Risk factors
and
treatments
for
osteoporosis

Risk factors
• Postmenopausal status
• White female
• Excessive alcohol use
• Cigarette smoking
• Diets low in calcium,

protein, minerals,
vitamins

• Sedentary lifestyle

Treatment
• Medications (have

risks)
• Not calcitonin
• Dietary silicon
• Prevention through

weight-bearing
exercise

Prevalence of
osteoporosis or low
bone mass at the
femur neck among
adults aged 50 and
older having elevated
10-yr probability of
hip or major
osteoporotic fracture

Diabetes

Pancreas

Insulin

Insulin moves glucose
into cell where it’s
converted to glycogen

Healthy

Type 2

Cells fail to
respond to insulin
properly; glucose
accumulates
outside cell

Treatment involves insulin, dietary changes, exercise, and avoidance of interactions
with over-the-counter medications

Estimated age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes by race/ethnicity and sex among adults
18 years of age and older, U.S. 2013-2015.

RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Neurocognitive disorders

Diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders

Memory loss

Aphasia

Apraxia

Agnosia

Social cognition

Disturbances in executive functioning

Diagnostic
criteria for

neurocognitive
disorders

• Memory loss
• Aphasia
• Apraxia
• Agnosia
• Social cognitive disturbances
• Disturbance in executive

functioning

Prevalence Estimates of Neurocognitive
Disorders, U.S. vs. World

10% 5-8%

World Health Organization includes all forms of neurocognitive disorders and
uses different modeling approach

Alzheimer’s Association places estimate at 5.8 million (includes all forms of
neurocognitive disorders); using the WHO modeling approach yields 3.25 million
and rule out the 25% who do not have Alzheimer’s Disease.

Other
factors
affecting
prevalence
estimates

HIGHER RATES IN LOW- TO
MIDDLE-INCOME

COUNTRIES

ACCURACY OF DIAGNOSTIC
METHODS

AVAILABILITY OF AUTOPSY
RECORDS

Progression of
changes that
can lead to
Alzheimer’s
disease

Differences
between
normal aging
and
Alzheimer’s
disease

Normal aging
• Making a bad decision once

in a while
• Missing a monthly payment
• Forgetting which day it is and

remembering it later
• Sometimes forgetting which

word to use
• Losing things from time to

time

Alzheimer’s disease
• Making poor judgments

and decisions a lot of the
time

• Problems taking care of
monthly bills

• Losing track of the date or
time of year

• Trouble having a
conversation

• Misplacing things often
and being unable to find
them

APP APP

Normal APP Cleavage Formation of β-amyloid plaque

plaque

How Alzheimer’s changes the brain

Normal cleavage of APP
occurs when it is snipped by
α-secretase, releasing a
neuroprotective fragment
along with the snipped APP.
In the formation of a plaque,
the snipping by β-secretase
and ϒ-secretase results in
abnormal cleavage and the
production of plaques.

secretase

secretase

secretase

Tau disintegration

Microtubule

Neurofibrillary tangles are formed when tau
disintegrates leading microtubules to
become twisted and tangled.

Genetic theories of Alzheimer’s disease

Early onset cases
led to discovery of
potential genetic

causes

The ApoE gene
now thought to
be involved in

plaques

Social support
Mental activity

Physical exercise

Limited alcohol

Mediterranean diet

May reduce
Alzheimer’s
risk

Protective factors against Alzheimer’s disease

Medical treatments for
Alzheimer’s disease

• Anticholinesterase
• THA (tacrine)
• Donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept)
• Galantamine (Razadyne)
• Rivastigmine (Exelon)

• Glutamate
• Memantine (Namenda)

• Anti beta-amyloid oligomers
• Aducanumab

Psychosocial treatments

Teach
behavioral
methods

01
Adhere to
schedule

02
Target
problematic
behaviors

03
Identify when
patient
becomes
disruptive

04

Other forms of
neurocognitive

disorder

• Vascular neurocognitive disorder
(multi-infarct dementia)

• Frontotemporal neurocognitive
disorder

• Parkinson’s disease
• Neurocognitive disorder with

Lewy bodies
• Pick’s disease

Reversible neurocognitive disorders

Normal pressure
hydrocephalus

Subdural
hematoma Delirium

Polypharmacy

Wernicke’s disease
(can progress to

Korsakoff
syndrome)

Pseudodementia

  • Health and Prevention
  • Slide Number 2
  • KEY CONCEPTS IN HEALTH AND PREVENTION
  • Activities of daily living (ADL)
  • Slide Number 5
  • Slide Number 6
  • Slide Number 7
  • Non-Communicable Disease Burden
  • DISEASES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
  • Slide Number 10
  • Slide Number 11
  • Slide Number 12
  • Development of atherosclerosis
  • Slide Number 14
  • Slide Number 16
  • Slide Number 17
  • Slide Number 18
  • Prevention of heart disease and stroke relies on 3 key factors
  • Cancer
  • Slide Number 21
  • Percent of new cancer cases by age, U.S.
  • Slide Number 23
  • Worldwide cancer deaths in 2018
  • Forms of cancer treatment
  • Slide Number 26
  • DISEASES OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
  • Slide Number 28
  • Risk factors and treatment for osteoarthritis
  • Percentage of adults with arthritis by obesity, diabetes, and heart disease status, U.S. 2013-2015 (age-adjusted)
  • Osteoporosis
  • Risk factors and treatments for osteoporosis
  • Prevalence of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femur neck among adults aged 50 and older having elevated 10-yr probability of hip or major osteoporotic fracture
  • Diabetes
  • Slide Number 35
  • Slide Number 36
  • RESPIRATORY DISEASES
  • Slide Number 38
  • Slide Number 39
  • Slide Number 40
  • Neurocognitive disorders
  • Diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders
  • Diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders
  • Prevalence Estimates of Neurocognitive Disorders, U.S. vs. World
  • Other factors affecting prevalence estimates
  • Slide Number 46
  • Differences between normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease
  • Slide Number 48
  • Slide Number 49
  • Genetic theories of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Protective factors against Alzheimer’s disease
  • Medical treatments for Alzheimer’s disease
  • Psychosocial treatments
  • Other forms of neurocognitive disorder
  • Reversible neurocognitive disorders

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