WMDs 1. Hypothesize whether or not non-state actors are willing and/or able to use WMD. 2. Select one CBRN WMD agent and analyze the effect of that weapo

WMDs 1. Hypothesize whether or not non-state actors are willing and/or able to use WMD.

2. Select one CBRN WMD agent and analyze the effect of that weapo

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1. Hypothesize whether or not non-state actors are willing and/or able to use WMD. 

2. Select one CBRN WMD agent and analyze the effect of that weapon on a projected target population.

3. Describe the impact of an electromagnetic pulse weapon.  Hypothesize how the U.S. would be able to defend against and recover from this type of WMD.

4. Prepare a threat assessment for one CBRN WMD agent that you select that you assess as being the most likely to occur. 


Instructions

Each essay should be 2 – 3 pages to address each of the 4 questions employing OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM references. This will be a total of 12 pages, plus your title page and your references page. The four essays will be assembled and submitted as one document with one OVERALL title page. Each essay will have their own references list. Be sure to make a clear thesis statement and argument and use examples to support your analysis. 


Question

1. Hypothesize whether or not non-state actors are willing and/or able to use WMD. 

2. Select one CBRN WMD agent and analyze the effect of that weapon on a projected target population.

3. Describe the impact of an electromagnetic pulse weapon.  Hypothesize how the U.S. would be able to defend against and recover from this type of WMD.

4. Prepare a threat assessment for one CBRN WMD agent that you select that you assess as being the most likely to occur. 



Technical Requirements

· Your paper must be at a MAXIMUM of 12 pages, 2-3 pages for each question (the Reference page for each essay do not count towards the minimum limit). 

· There will be ONE TITLE page for the submitted exam which will contain FOUR UNIQUE essays. 

· Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is at least 2 scholarly sources per page of content.

· Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.

· Follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style. 

· Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.

REFERENCES

· The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. (2010). Incidents of Terrorism — 2010. Retrieved from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/terrorstats2010.html

· Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. (2011). Country Reports on Terrorism 2010. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from 
http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2010/170266.htm

· Bunn, M., Morozov, Y., et al. (2011, May). The U.S.-Russia Joint Threat Assessment on Nuclear Terrorism. Institute for U.S. and Canadian Studies, the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University. Retrieved from 
http://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/legacy/files/Joint-Threat-Assessment%20ENG%2027%20May%202011.pdf

· Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. (2017). The effects of nuclear weapons. Retrieved from 
http://www.cnduk.org/campaigns/global-abolition/effects-of-nuclear-weapons
 

· Cochran, T.B. and Norris, R.S. (2016, December 13). Nuclear Weapons. Encyclopaedia Britannica . Retrieved from 
https://www.britannica.com/technology/nuclear-weapon
 

· Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. (2013). Types of Nuclear Weapons. Retrieved from 
https://www.ctbto.org/nuclear-testing/types-of-nuclear-weapons/
 

· Encyclopedia Britannica editors. (2016, April 29). Atomic bomb. Encyclopaedia Britannica . Retrieved from 
https://www.britannica.com/technology/atomic-bomb
 

· Encyclopedia Britannica editors. (2013, June 4). Thermonuclear bomb. Encyclopaedia Britannica . Retrieved from 
https://www.britannica.com/technology/thermonuclear-bomb
 

· Encyclopedia Britannica editors (2012, December 19). Neutron bomb. Encyclopaedia Britannica . Retrieved from 
https://www.britannica.com/technology/neutron-bomb
 

· Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. (2015). The Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT). Retrieved from 
http://www.gicnt.org

· Mowatt-Larsen, R. (2010, January 25). Al Qaeda’s Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from 
http://www.foreignpolicy.com/2010/01/25/al-qaedas-pursuit-of-weapons-of-mass-destruction

· New Internationalist editors. (2008, June). Nuclear weapons: a history. New Internationalist. Retrieved from 
https://newint.org/features/2008/06/01/nuclear-weapons-history/
 

· Olson, C. (2009, August 5). The Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism: Progress to Date. Nuclear Threat Initiative. Retrieved from 
http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/initiative-combat-nuclear-terrorism/

· Ruff, T. (2006, November). Nuclear Terrorism. The Energy Science Coalition. Retrieved from 
http://energyscience.org.au/FS10%20Nuclear%20Terrorism.pdf

· Spring, B. and Dodge, M. (2012, January 27). Time to Modernize and Revitalize the Nuclear Triad. The Heritage Foundation, Retrieved from 
http://www.heritage.org/defense/report/time-modernize-and-revitalize-the-nuclear-triad
 

· Cordesman, A.H. (2001, November 8). Radiological Weapons as Means of Attack. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from 
https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/legacy_files/files/media/csis/pubs/radiological%5B1%5D.pdf
 

· Council on Foreign Relations. (2006, January 1). Targets for Terrorism: Nuclear Facilities. Retrieved from 
http://www.cfr.org/homeland-security/targets-terrorism-nuclear-facilities/p10213
 

· Ford, J.L. (1998, March). Radiological Dispersal Devices: Assessing the Transnational Threat. Strategic Forum 136. Retrieved from 
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/forum136.htm
 

· Krock, L. and Deusser, R. (2003, February). Dirty Bomb: Chronology of Events. Nova. Retrieved from 
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/dirtybomb/chrono.html
 

· Johnston, W.R. (2005, September 15). Dirty Bombs and Other Radiological Weapons. Johnston’s Archive. Retrieved from 
http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/dirtybomb.html
 

· Nuclear Threat Initiative (2017). Radiological Terrorism and Nuclear Sabotage. Nuclear and Radiological Security. Retrieved from 
http://tutorials.nti.org/nuclear-and-radiological-security/terrorism-radiological/
 

· Sublette, C. (1998, May 1). Types of Nuclear Weapons: Cobalt Bombs and other Salted Bombs. The Nuclear Weapon Archive. Retrieved from 
http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Nwfaq/Nfaq1.html#nfaq1.6
 

· Summit County Health Department. (2017). Radiological Hazards and Weapons. Retrieved from 
http://www.summitcountyhealth.org/adults/emergency-preparedness/public-health-planning-response/radiological-hazards-and-weapons/
 

· U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2017). Radiological Materials and Nuclear Weapons. Awareness Level WMD Training, Office for Domestic Preparedness. Retrieved from 
https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=456423
 

· U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (2012, December). Fact Sheet on Dirty Bombs. Retrieved from 
https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/fs-dirty-bombs.html
 

· Images

· “Men attempting to scrub contaminated ship during Operation Crossroads” by 
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Crossroads_Baker_Scrubdown.jpg
 .

· “Soldiers testing mine-clearing rake during the Gulf War” by 
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/M728_Combat_Engineer_Vehicle_with_mine_rake.jpg
 .

· “Testing of China’s first nuclear bomb” by 
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/ChinaABomb_1.jpg
 .

· “Chechen rebel with gun near government palace in Grozny, Chechnya ” by 
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Evstafiev-chechnya-palace-gunman.jpg
 .

· “Jose Padilla” by 
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/ca/Jos%C3%A9_Padilla.jpg
 .

· References

· Commission for Conventional Armaments. (1948, August 12). Resolution of the Commission for Conventional Armaments. Department of State Bulletin of August 29, 1048, p. 268. Retrieved from  
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/decad253.asp
 

· Ganesan, K., Raza, S. K., and Vijayaraghavan, R. (2010). Chemical warfare agents. Journal of Pharmacy & BioalliedSciences  2010 Jul-Sep; 2(3): 166–178. Retrieved from 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3148621/
 

· Lang, W. (1937, December 28.). Archbishop’s Appeal: Individual Will and Action; Guarding Personality. London Times, 9.

· Nuclear Threat Initiative. (2015, December 30). The radiological threat: Dirty bombs are “weapons of mass disruption.” Retrieved from 
http://www.nti.org/learn/radiological/
 

· Office of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2004). The National Military Strategy of the United States of America. Retrieved from 
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/dod/d20050318nms.pdf
 

· Office of the President of the United States. (1994, November 14). Executive Order 12938; Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from 
https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Documents/12938.pdf

· Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. (2017). Types of chemical agent. Retrieved from 
https://www.opcw.org/about-chemical-weapons/types-of-chemical-agent/

· Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). (2012). Types of Nuclear Weapons. Retrieved from 
https://www.ctbto.org/nuclear-testing/types-of-nuclear-weapons/

· Public Broadcasting System (PBS). (2005). Types of Nuclear Bombs. PBS Newshour, May 2. Retrieved from 
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/military-jan-june05-bombs_05-02/

· Stebbins, M. (2007). Introduction to Biological Weapons. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved from 
https://fas.org/biosecurity/resource/bioweapons.htm

· United States Congress. (1994). 18 U.S. Code § 2332a – Use of weapons of mass destruction. Legal Information Institute. Retrieved from  
https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/2332a
 

· United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (2014, December 12). Fact Sheet on Dirty Bombs. Retrieved from 
https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/fs-dirty-bombs.html
 

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