WRITING ASSIGNMENT 4A: Completing the Revolution NEEDED BY 12/09/21 at 1pm In some ways, the Civil War completed the American Revolution. The ideals boldly

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 4A: Completing the Revolution NEEDED BY 12/09/21 at 1pm In some ways, the Civil War completed the American Revolution. The ideals boldly

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WRITING ASSIGNMENT 4A: Completing the Revolution NEEDED BY 12/09/21 at 1pm In some ways, the Civil War completed the American Revolution. The ideals boldly proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence, that “all men are created equal”, were now being somewhat realized. The reality was that at the end of Reconstruction the United States was still, in fact, an “unfinished nation,” and that it will be the Civil Rights era and its accomplishments that completed the revolution.

Review and identify relevant sections of Chapters 29.
Review and identify relevant sections of chapters that have been covered throughout the semester.
Utilize at least one of the linked sources .
Identify and incorporate at least one additional outside source to support your discussion. use any material outside of the textbook that is recommended in the Additional Reading section at the end of each chapter. You are also encouraged to do your own research and identify relevant sources. Please keep in mind that WIKIPEDIA is not an acceptable reference.

minimum of 700 words (but not limited to), including supporting details from the documents/textbook/other sources in which you analyze and discuss the material that has been assigned by addressing the following question:

Discuss in what ways the United States was an “unfinished nation,” and how the accomplishments of the Civil Rights era completed the process. In your opinion, is the United States currently a “finished nation” or is there still “unfinished business” that needs to be addressed?





https://www.cnn.com/2013/06/27/us/gay-rights-whats-next Chapter 29: Civil Rights and Uncivil Liberties1947 to 1969



Civil Rights and Uncivil Liberties 1947 to 1969

“Largely excluded from the prosperity of the 1950s, African Americans and Latinos undertook a series of grassroots efforts to gain the legal and social freedoms denied them by racism and, in the South, an entrenched system of segregation.”

What’s to Come

The Civil Rights Movement

A Movement Becomes a Crusade

Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society

Youth Movements

The Civil Rights Movement (1)

The Changing South and African Americans

Labor shortage drove mechanized cotton picking
Southern economy integrated into the national economy
Decline in job opportunities for black southerners

The NAACP and Civil Rights

Thurgood Marshall
Initially, NAACP chose not to attack head-on the Supreme Court’s “separate but equal” decision in Plessy v. Ferguson

The Civil Rights Movement (2)

When the Illinois Central Railroad attempted to end segregation by taking down “colored” and “white” signs in its waiting rooms, the city of Jackson, Mississippi, jumped in, ordering Robert Wheaton, a black city employee, to paint new signs, as two white supervisors looked on. © AP Photo

The Civil Rights Movement (3)

The BrownDecision

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
NAACP’s change in tactics in 1950
Directly confronted “separate but equal” doctrine
Plessy Overturned

carried out “with all deliberate speed”

“Southern Manifesto”
Issued by 19 U.S. senators and 81 representatives to reestablish legalized segregation

The Civil Rights Movement (4)

Latino Civil Rights

American GI Forum and League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
Supported legal challenges to school segregation

Delgadoand segregated schools
Delgado et al. v. Bastrop et al.
Southwest states recognized just two races: black and white

Hernández v. Texasand desegregation

“[Chief Justice Earl] Warren’s reasoning made it possible for Latinos to seek redress as a group rather than as individuals.”

The Civil Rights Movement (5)

Attorney Gus Garcia was one of the key leaders of the American GI Forum, founded by Mexican American veterans to pursue their civil rights. He and his colleagues successfully appealed the conviction of Pete Hernández before the Supreme Court in 1954. Photo: UTSA Special Collections –ITC © San Antonio Express-News/ZUMA Press

The Civil Rights Movement (6)

A New Civil Rights Strategy

Rosa Parks
Bus boycott

Martin Luther King Jr.
Nonviolence as a strategy

Little Rock and the White Backlashchoolintegration

Nine black students met by a mob
Eisenhower federalized the National Guard
Governor closed schools in defiance

The Civil Rights Movement (7)

Governor Faubus of Arkansas called out the National Guard to prevent African American students from integrating Little Rock’s Central High School. Once President Eisenhower federalized the Guard, soldiers stayed at the school to protect the nine students who dared to cross the color line. © John Bryson/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images

A Movement Becomes a Crusade (1)


Riding to Freedom

Newer civil rights organizations

Freedom riders attacked
Kennedy had hedged on the promise of civil rights legislation

Civil Rights at High Tide

James Meredith
King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
March on Washington

A Movement Becomes a Crusade (2)

In May 1961, a mob in Montgomery, Alabama, surrounded the Negro First Baptist Church where Martin Luther King Jr. was leading an all-night vigil. King put in a call to Attorney General Robert Kennedy, who sent 400 federal marshals to keep order. ©Bettmann/Getty Images

A Movement Becomes a Crusade (3)

In Birmingham, Alabama, firefighters used high-pressure hoses to disperse civil rights demonstrators. The force of the hoses was powerful enough to tear bark off trees. Photographs like this one aroused widespread sympathy for the civil rights movement. © Bettmann/Getty Images

A Movement Becomes a Crusade (4)

The Fire Next Time

Tragedy in Dallas: JFK assassinated, Nov. 22, 1963
LBJ and the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Voting Rights Act of 1965

Black Power

facto segregation
Nation of Islam
Malcolm X
Black Power

Black Panthers

A Movement Becomes a Crusade (5)

Malcolm X. ©AP Photo

A Movement Becomes a Crusade (6)

Violence in the Streets

Harlem; Rochester; Watts area of L.A.; Chicago; Newark; Detroit
won because we made them pay attention to us.”


The first phase of the civil rights movement was confined largely to the South, where the freedom riders of 1961 dramatized the issue of segregation. Beginning in the summer of 1964, urban riots brought the issue of race and politics home to the entire nation. Severe rioting would again follow the murder of Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968, after which the worst violence subsided. (background photo): Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division [LC-DIG-ppsca-08102]

Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society (1)

Johnson’s liberal faith

The Origins of the Great Society

Discovering poverty
Michael Harrington’s The Other America(1962)
Economic Opportunity Act, 1964

The Election of 1964

Promised a “Great Society”
which poverty and racial injustice no longer existed

Johnson won by a landslide

Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society (2)

Lyndon Johnson’s powers of persuasion were legendary. He applied the “Johnson treatment” (as here, in 1957, to Senator TheodoreGreen) whenever he wanted people to see things his way. Few could say no, as he freely violated their personal space and reminded them who dominated the situation. ©George Tames/The New York Times/Redux Pictures

Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society (3)

The Great Society

Programs in education
Medicare and Medicaid
Immigration reform
Immigration Act of 1965
Prejudice toward Latin Americans

Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962)
National Wilderness Preservation System Act, 1964

Evaluating the Great Society
High-water mark of interventionist government

Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society (4)

“Powerful Insecticide, Harmless to Humans,” reads the truck’s sign. Convinced that pesticides such as DDT posed no threat, public health and agriculture officials sprayed lands with a reckless abandon that spurred Rachel Carson to advocate curbs on pesticide use. © Bettmann/Getty Images


Government has been a major growth industry since World War II. Most people think of “big government” as federal government. But even during the Great Society, far more people worked in state and local government. (background photo) ©DRB Images, LLC/iStockphoto RF

Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society (5)

The Reforms of the Warren Court

Protecting due process
Right to legal counsel
Miranda rights

Reflections of liberal social climate
Overturned ban on sale of contraceptives (Griswold)
Banning school prayer

Principle of “one person, one vote”

“Although Lyndon Johnson and Congress led the liberal crusade in the 1960s, the Supreme Court played an equally significant role.”

Youth Movements (1)

Activists on the New Left

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
Free Speech Movement
Young Americans for Freedom (YAF)

Vatican II and American Catholics

Pope John XXIII and Vatican II
Dealt with issues of social change, such as poverty, nuclear war, atheism, and birth control

Catholics would seek understanding with other Christians

Youth Movements (2)

Edie Black from Smith College was one of hundreds of middle-class students who volunteered during Freedom Summer of 1964. Many students returned to their campuses in the fall radicalized, ready to convince others to join them in finding alternatives to “the system.” ©1976 Matt Heron/Take Stock/The Image Works

Youth Movements (3)

Members of Young Americans for Freedom protest at the offices of IBM in St. Louis, for trading with communist nations in Eastern Europe. Though less prominent than student activists on the left, members of the YAF proved to be the seedbed of a generation of conservatives who would gain influence in the 1970s and 1980s. ©Bettmann/Getty Images

Youth Movements (4)

The Rise of the Counterculture

Spiritual matters aroused secular rebels
Timothy Leary

Unconventional drugs
Ken Kesey (One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest)
Tom Wolfe (The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test)

Youth Movements (5)

The Rock Revolution

Bob Dylan
The Beatles
Soul music

The West Coast Scene

West Coast importance in counterculture
First “Be-In”
Woodstock Music Festival (1969)

Youth Movements (6)

The Beatles had a major impact on men’s style as well as on popular music. This 1963 photo shows their “mod” look popular first in England. Later they adopted a hippie look. ©Bettmann/Getty Images

Youth Movements (7)

Some 400,000 people converged on the Woodstock Music Festival in the summer of 1969. These two came with their psychedelic VW Microbus. ©AP Photo

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